conyzae Hendel, 1920
conyzae Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7)
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen
palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 384
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk
ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 70 (fig. 226), 73, 113, 114
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 406-8, figs 711-712.
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1990. Host
specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 271, 272
(fig. 1032) 273, 283, 305, 309.
irregularly linear mine which can be both on the upper and lower
leaf surface. Pupation takes place either at the end of the mine
in an exit slit cut in the leaf or on the ground (Spencer, 1972b: 70 (fig. 226), 73; Spencer,
1976: 407 (fig. 712), 408).
surface corridor, often following the midrib for some distance.
Frequently the very first part of the mine is lower-surface, and
sometimes the entire mine remains at the lower surface. The corridor
is wide from the start, with irregular sides. Frass initially in
two rows of fine grains; further on the grains become larger and
more irregular, sometimes forming pearl chains, and are dispersed
less regularly. Pupation takes place either outside or within the
mine. When the larva has left the mine a semicircular exit slit
is made. When the puparium is formed within the mine the spiracles
do not penetrate the epidermis, and an irregular semicircular opening
is made in the epidermis in front of the puparium (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Mines down the leaf from the tip, then doubles back and then mines towards the apex, often doubling back a second time, towards the leaf base (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by de Meijere (1926).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Black or dark brown; posterior spiracles each having 17-19 bulbs Spencer, 1976: 408).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: June-October.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in south, also Denbighshire
(nr Wrexham) (Spencer, 1972b:
73), Warwickshire (Hawkesbury) (Robbins,
1991: 111); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33), Glamorganshire (VC41), North Somerset (VC6), South Somerset (VC5), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Wexford (Rosslare) (Spencer, 1972b: 73).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark
and Sweden (Spencer, 1976:
407), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Scheirs,
de Bruyn and Verdyck, 1993), Germany (Spencer,
1976: 570), Albania, Austria, Balearic Is., Corsica, Czech Republic,
Dodecanese Is., European Turkey, French mainland, Italian mainland,
Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Sardinia,
Sicily, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
common in the Mediterranean area (Spencer,
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: