The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza marginella Fallén, 1823
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza marginella Fallén, 1823b. Phytomyzides et Ochtidiae Sveciae : 3
Phytomyza sonchi Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851. Rev. Mag. Zool. (2)3: 400
Phytomyza sonchi Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 481
Phytomyza marginella Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 76 (figs 250-1), 80, 114, 115
Phytomyza marginella Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 444-6, figs 779-80.
Phytomyza marginella Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 175, 259, 266 (fig. 1006), 267.


Leaf-mine: Larva mining both lower and upper surface, unusually long, linear, conspicuously broad, frequently largely on the underside of the leaf. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 76 (fig. 251); Spencer, 1976: 445 (fig. 780), 446).

Corridor mine. The first part consists of a very long and narrow lower-surface corridor; the mine is quite shollow here, and often inconspicuous. The second part is upper-surface, uusally much shorter, and widens abruptly. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1937, as sonchi) and Griffiths (1977).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black; posterior spiracles each with up to 30 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 446).

Comments: Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Crepis       Robbins, 1991: 124
Crepis vesicaria Beaked Hawk's-beard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Hieracium       Mines in BMNH
Hieracium       Robbins, 1991: 124
Hieracium sabaudum     Robbins, 1989: 25, as perpropinquum
Lapsana       Mines in BMNH
Lapsana       Robbins, 1991: 124
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Picris sp.     Spencer, 1972b: 114
Picris echioides Bristly Oxtongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH, as Picris
Picris hieracioides Hawkweed Oxtongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pilosella officinarum Mouse-ear-hawkweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25 (as Hieracium pilosella)
Senecio aquaticus Marsh Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Sonchus       Robbins, 1991: 124
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Taraxacum       Robbins, 1991: 124
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Calendula officinalis Pot Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cicerbita       Spencer, 1976: 446
Cicerbita alpina Alpine Blue-sow-thistle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Crepis       Spencer, 1976: 446
Crepis       Spencer, 1990: 259
Crepis paludosa Marsh Hawks-beard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Crepis paludosa Marsh Hawks-beard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Hieracium paludosum

Hieracium       Spencer, 1990: 259
Hieracium laevigatum Tongue-leaved Hawkweed   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium murorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium paludosum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium sabaudum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium umbellatum Umbellate Hawkweed   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium vulgatum Common Hawkweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hypochaeris radicata Cat's-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca       Spencer, 1976: 446
Lactuca       Spencer, 1990: 259
Lactuca       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lapsana       Spencer, 1976: 446
Lapsana       Spencer, 1990: 259
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon       Spencer, 1990: 259
Leontodon autumnalis Autumn Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon hispidus Rough Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mycelis muralis Wall Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Picris       Spencer, 1976: 446
Picris       Spencer, 1990: 259
Picris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Prenanthes       Spencer, 1976: 446
Prenanthes       Spencer, 1990: 259
Prenanthes purpurea Purple Lettuce   Bladmineerders van Europa
Reichardia       Spencer, 1990: 259
Sonchus       Spencer, 1976: 446
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1976: 446
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1990: 301
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May-October.

Time of year - adults: August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in south, also Sutherland (Golspie) (Spencer, 1972b: 80), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992) and Warwickshire (Corley) (Robbins, 1991: 124); Cambridgeshire, East Suffolk, South-west Yorkshire and West Suffolk (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland, Co. Cork (Bantry), Co. Galway (Clifden) (Spencer, 1972b: 80).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in much of Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 446), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Scheirs, de Bruyn and Verdyck, 1993), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574), Austria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Finland, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland and Romania (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Calendula officinalis, Cicerbita alpina, Crepis paludosa, Crepis vesicaria, Hieracium laevigatum, Hieracium murorum, Hieracium sabaudum, Hieracium vulgatum, Hypochaeris radicata, Lapsana communis, Leontodon autumnalis (= Scorzoneroides autumnalis), Leontodon hispidus, Mycelis muralis, Picris echioides, Picris hieracioides, Pilosella officinarum, Prenanthes purpurea, Senecio aquaticus, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Taraxacum officinale

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Miscogaster elegans Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Seladerma tarsale (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa ocyroe Nixon, 1937 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ambiguus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma reptantis (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma rex (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 06-Dec-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page