The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza pauliloewii Hendel, 1920
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza pauliloewii Hendel, 1920. Archiv für Naturgeschichte [a] 84(7): 158
Phytomyza pauliloewii Hendel, 1920; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 451
Phytomyza ? pauli-loewi Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 105 (fig. 360), 108, 121
Phytomyza pauliloewii Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 465-6, figs 815-6.
Phytomyza pauliloewii Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 160, 169, 171 (fig. 629).


Leaf-mine: A small regular blotch, which can be enlarged when several larvae feed together (Spencer, 1972b: 105 (fig. 360, putative mine on Pimpinella saxifraga), 466; Spencer, 1976: 465 (fig. 816, mine on Peucedanum oreoselinum).

Roundish, upper-surface blotch, about 1 cm in diameter. No trace of a preceding corridor. Frass in coarse grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926); anterior spiracles each with 6 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 14 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 466).

Comments: Spencer (1972b: 105 (fig. 360), 108) recorded whitish blotch mines of a Phytomyza sp. from Pimpinella saxifraga in Yorkshire (nr. Settle) collected by G.C.D. Griffiths which he stated were 'possibly referable to pauliloewii'. All British records require confirmation.

Peucedanum ostruthium is treated as Imperatoria ostruthium (Masterwort); Peucedanum palustre is treated as Thyselium palustre (Milk-parsley) and Peucedanum palustre is treated as Thyselium palustre (Milk-parsley) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
? Pimpinella       Robbins, 1991: 64
? Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
? Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
? Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
? Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1994c: 83

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Peucedanum       Spencer, 1990: 160
Peucedanum       Spencer, 1976: 466
Peucedanum oreoselinum     Mines in BMNH
Peucedanum oreoselinum     Spencer, 1976: 466
Peucedanum oreoselinum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Peucedanum ostruthium Masterwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Peucedanum palustre Milk-parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Peucedanum schotti     Bladmineerders van Europa
Pimpinella       Spencer, 1990: 160
Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June.

Time of year - adults: July-August and April the following year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: ? Yorkshire (Spencer, 1972b: 108); ? Berwicks (St Abbs) (Bland, 1994c: 83) and ? Warwickshire (Keresley and Hartshill) (Robbins, 1991: 64).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 466), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574), Austria, Czech Republic, Italian mainland, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Peucedanum ostruthium (= Imperatoria ostruthium), Peucedanum palustre (= Thyselium palustre), Pimpinella major, Pimpinella saxifraga

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cea pulicaris Walker, 1837 Pteromalidae: Ceinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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