The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza pullula Zetterstedt, 1848
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza pullula Zetterstedt, 1848. Dipt. Scand. 7: 2832
Phytomyza matricariae Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7) (1918): 161. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 475]
Phytomyza gotlandica Rydén, 1952. Opusc. ent. 17: 17. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 440]
Phytomyza matricariae Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 77, 111, 114, 115
Phytomyza pullula Zetterstedt, 1848; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 475-6, fig. 837
Phytomyza pullula Zetterstedt, 1848; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 113, 138 (fig. 525), 139.


Leaf-mine: A narrow linear mine, even in the finest subdivisions of the leaves (Spencer, 1972b: 77, as matricariae ; Spencer, 1976: 478).

Very fine corridor, upper- or lower-surface, even in the narrowest leaf segments. The corridor may be up to 14 cm long (Sehgal, 1971a). Generally the corridor descends towards the leaf base. Frass in pearl chains of loose grains, hardly in strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926, as matricariae) and Sehgal (1971, as matricariae). Posterior spiracles each with 18-20 bulbs.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Shining black; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of up to 20 minute bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 77, as matricariae); Spencer, 1976: 478).

Comments: Matricaria recutita is treated as Matricaria chamomilla (Scented Mayweed) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 115
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111
Anthemis       Mines in BMNH
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 117
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Tripleurospermum       Robbins, 1991: 115
Tripleurospermum maritimum Sea Mayweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 26
Tripleurospermum maritimum x inodora     Spencer, 1972b: 114
Tripleurospermum maritimum x inodora     Mines in BMNH

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Achillea       Spencer, 1976: 476
Achillea grandifolia White Yarrow Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea impatiens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea lanulosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea ligustica Southern Yarrow   Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea magna     Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea nobilis Noble Yarrow   Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea odorata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea roseoalba     Bladmineerders van Europa
Achillea sibirica     Bladmineerders van Europa
Anacyclus       Spencer, 1990: 301
Anacyclus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthemis       Spencer, 1976: 476
Anthemis altissima Southern Chamomile   Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthemis cotula Stinking Chamomile   Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthemis tinctoria Yellow Chamomile British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthemis triumfetti     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chamaemelum mixtum Mediterranean Chamomile  

Bladmineerders van Europa

Cotula coronopifolia Buttonweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Daveaua anthemoides     Bladmineerders van Europa
Matricaria       Spencer, 1976: 476
Matricaria discoidea Pineapple Weed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Chamomilla suaveolens
Matricaria nigellaefolia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Matricaria odorata     Spencer, 1976: 476
Matricaria recutita Scented Mayweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Chamaemelum recutita

Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 476
Tripleurospermum inodorum Scentless Mayweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. phaeocephalum     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread. Hertfordshire (Ugley), Gloucester (Tewkesbury), Suffolk (Barton), Lancaster (Manchester), Edinburgh, Dunbarton (Bonhill) (Spencer, 1972b: 77), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992; as matricariae) and Warwickshire (Robbins, 1991: 115); Nottinghamshire and Pembrokeshire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Europe (Spencer, 1976: 476) including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 578), Austria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia and Sweden (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Alberta) (Spencer, 1976: 476).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Achillea grandifolia, Achillea ligustica, Achillea nobilis, Achillea millefolium, Anthemis altissima, Anthemis cotula, Anthemis tinctoria, Chamaemelum mixtum, Cotula coronopifolia, Matricaria discoidea, Matricaria recutita (= Matricaria chamomilla), Tanacetum vulgare, Tripleurospermum inodorum, Tripleurospermum maritimum, Tripleurospermum maritimum x inodorum, Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. phaeocephalum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis entedonoides (Walker, 1872) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Seladerma sabbas (Walker, 1848) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus alecto (Morley, 1924) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa melicerta (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
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