The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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COTULA. Buttonweeds and Leptinellas. [Asteraceae]


Thirteen species of Cotula are recorded in Britain. These include Annual Buttonweed (C. australis), Buttonweed (C. coronopifolia), Ferny Buttonweed (C. bipinnata), Hairless Leptinella (C. dioica) and Leptinella (C. squalida). All are introduced.

Two British miners are recorded on Cotula.

A key to the European miners recorded on Cotula is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Cotula


1a > Leaf-miner: Mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface. Pupation internal, at the end of the mine with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 433). Upper-surface, less often lower-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation within the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa). A long whitish upper surface corridor, which eventually goes lower surface (British leafminers).

Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau) which can only be distinguished by the male genitalia. Both species are widespread in Britain and elsewhere, although syngenesiae is almost entirely restricted to Asteraceae. Records on Asteraceae not based on examination of male genitalia are treated in this account as Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.

Chromatomyia horticola has been recorded on Cephalaria elsewhere, but not yet on Cephalaria in Britain.

Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: A narrow linear mine, even in the finest subdivisions of the leaves (Spencer, 1972b: 77, as matricariae ; Spencer, 1976: 478).

Very fine corridor, upper- or lower-surface, even in the narrowest leaf segments. The corridor may be up to 14 cm long (Sehgal, 1971a). Generally the corridor descends towards the leaf base. Frass in pearl chains of loose grains, hardly in strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa). Very fine corridor, upper- or lower-surface, even in the narrowest leaf segments. The corridor may be up to 14 cm long (Sehgal, 1971a). Generally the corridor descends towards the leaf base. Frass in pearl chains of loose grains, hardly in strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Achillea millefolium, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Anthemis, Tanacetum vulgare, Tripleurospermum, Tripleurospermum maritimum and Tripleurospermum maritimum x inodora, but not yet on Cotula, in Britain and other Asteraceae elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Phytomyza pullula Zetterstedt, 1848 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].



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