The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Scaptomyza graminum (Fallén, 1823)
[Diptera: Drosophilidae]


Drosophila graminum Fallén, 1823c. Geomyzides Sveciae : 8.
Scaptomyza graminum (Fallén, 1823c).


 

Leaf-mine: The mine starts as a long, narrow, winding corridor running towards the midrib, widening to a blotch. Usually upper-surface, but in small leaves also full-depth parts may occur. The blotch has broad lobes; in their ends most frass is accumulated in the form of green patches or clouds. Sometimes several larvae share mine. Pupation usually in the soil, less often in the leaf (and then generally not in the mine itself but in a small separated mine, that may even be made in the petiole) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Scaptomyza graminum on Cerastium glomeratum
Mine of Scaptomyza graminum on Cerastium glomeratum
Image: © Jean-Yves Baugnée (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Watch a video of a scaptomyzid fly larva on Arabidopsis on YouTube by mash92587.

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Comments: Chandler (1978) did not indicate whether his host records were British or Foreign and are therefore tentatively included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere' as is the record by Pitkin & Plant, which was previously assumed to be British.

Lychnis flos-cuculi is treated as Silene flos-cuculi (Ragged-Robin) and Stellaria uliginosa is treated as Stellaria alsine (Bog Stitchwort) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Amaranthaceae        
? Amaranthus       Chandler, 1978: 225
Brassicaceae        
Nasturtium officinale Water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Chandler, 1978: 225
Nasturtium officinale Water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Caryophyllaceae        
Cerastium fontanum subsp. holosteoides     Robbins, 1991: 34 (as C. holosteoides)
Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged-Robin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Myosoton       Pitkin & Plant
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Stellaria       Adults in OUM
Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex       Adults in OUM
Atriplex       Robbins, 1991: 36
Atriplex patula Common Orache British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Fabaceae        
? Anthyllis       Robbins, 1991: 45
Anthyllis       Adults in OUM
Anthyllis vulneraria Kidney Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
? Lupinus       Chandler, 1978: 225
? Medicago       Chandler, 1978: 225
Portulacaceae        
? Montia       Chandler, 1978: 225
Scrophulariaceae        
? Antirrhinum       Chandler, 1978: 225

Hosts elsewhere:

Amaranthaceae        
? Amaranthus       Chandler, 1978: 225
Amaranthus       Hering, 1957
Amaranthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassicaceae        
Lepidium draba Hoary Cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Cardaria draba

Moricandia       Hering, 1957
Nasturtium officinale Water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Chandler, 1978: 225
Caryophyllaceae        
Agrostemma       Hering, 1957
Agrostemma githago Corncockle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Arenaria       Hering, 1957
Arenaria serpyllifolia Slender Sandwort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerastium       Hering, 1957
Cerastium arvense Field Mouse-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerastium fontanum Common Mouse-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerastium triviale     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerastium semidemcandrum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Coronaria tomentosa     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Coronaria tomentosa
Silene coronaria     Hering, 1957
Cucubalus       Hering, 1957
Dianthus       Hering, 1957
Dianthus barbatus Sweet-William British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus caryophyllus Clove Pink   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus carthusianorum Carthusian Pink   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus graniticus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus monspessulanus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus scaber     Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus segueri     Bladmineerders van Europa
Dianthus sylvestris     Bladmineerders van Europa
Gypsophila       Hering, 1957
Gypsophila elegans Annual Baby's-breath   Bladmineerders van Europa
Gypsophila paniculata Baby's-breath   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis       Hering, 1957
Lychnis coeli-rosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged-Robin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis fulgens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lychnis haageana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Moehringia       Hering, 1957
Moehringia trinervia Three-nerved Sandwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosoton       Hering, 1957
Myosoton aquaticum Water Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Polycarpon       Hering, 1957
Polycarpon tetraphyllum Four-leaved Allseed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Saponaria officinalis Soapwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene       Hering, 1957
Silene aegyptiaca     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene alpestris Alpine Campion   Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene asterias     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene baccifer     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene fuscata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene gallica Small-flowered Catchfly British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene latifolia subsp. alba     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene noctiflora Night-flowering Catchfly British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene nutans Nottingham Catchfly   Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene otites Spanish Catchfly   Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene pygmaea     Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Spergularia       Hering, 1957
Stellaria       Hering, 1957
Stellaria graminea Lesser Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria media Common Chickweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria nemorum Wood Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria palustris Marsh Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stellaria uliginosa Bog Stitchwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vaccaria       Hering, 1957
Viscaria oculata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex       Hering, 1957
Atriplex hortensis Garden Orache British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Beta       Hering, 1957
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima Sea Beet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium       Hering, 1957
Chenopodium album Fat-hen British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium hybridum Maple-leaved Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Obione       Hering, 1957
Salicornia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Salicornia       Hering, 1957
Spinacia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Spinacia       Hering, 1957
Fabaceae        
Anthyllis       Robbins, 1991: 45
Anthyllis       Adults in OUM
Anthyllis vulneraria Kidney Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Anthyllis vulneraria Kidney Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lupinus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lupinus       Hering, 1957
? Lupinus       Chandler, 1978: 225
? Medicago       Chandler, 1978: 225
Medicago       Hering, 1957
Medicago carstiensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Liliacaea        
Allium cepa Onion   Bladmineerders van Europa
Allium porrum Leek British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Portulacaceae        
? Montia       Chandler, 1978: 225
Montia       Hering, 1957
Portulaca       Hering, 1957
Scrophulariaceae        
? Antirrhinum       Chandler, 1978: 225
Antirrhinum       Hering, 1957

Time of year - mines: March, June-July, September-October.

Time of year - adults: Appears to have at least two generations a year with adults most abundant in July and October.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Warwickshire (Hawkesbury, Ladywalk, Nelson's Quarry and Dosthill) (Robbins, 1991), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992); Anglesey, Berwickshire, Breconshire, Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Cardiganshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Dorset, East Cornwall, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Ross, East Suffolk, East Sutherland, Easterness, Elgin, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Kirkudbrightshire, Merionethshire, Monmouthshire, Montgomeryshire, North Devon, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Pembrokeshire, Radnorshire, Renfrewshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeen, South Devon, South Hampshire, South Lancaster, South Wiltshire, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, West Gloucestershire, and Westmorland (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Bächli, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (de Meijere, 1939), Belgium (Gosseries, 1991a), Andorra, Austria, Azores, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dodecanese Is., Faroe Is., Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Iceland, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madeira, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - North and Northwest, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Bächli, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Asia and North Africa (Bächli and Roche Pite, 1984).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Agrostemma githago, Allium cepa, Allium porrum, Anthyllis vulneraria, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Atriplex hortensis, Atriplex patula, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, Cerastium arvense, Cerastium fontanum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. holosteoides,Chenopodium album, Chenopodium hybridum, Dianthus barbatus, Dianthus carthusianorum, Dianthus caryophyllus, Gypsophila elegans, Gypsophila paniculata, Lepidium draba, Lychnis flos-cuculi (= Silene flos-cuculi), Moehringia trinervia, Myosoton aquaticum, Polycarpon tetraphyllum, Nasturtium officinale, Saponaria officinalis, Silene alpestris, Silene dioica, Silene gallica, Silene latifolia subsp. alba, Silene noctiflora, Silene nutans, Silene otites, Silene vulgaris, Stellaria graminea, Stellaria holostea, Stellaria media, Stellaria nemorum, Stellaria palustris, Stellaria uliginosa (= Stellaria alsine).

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pallipes (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Halticoptera aenea (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dinotrema microcera (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dinotrema nervosum (Haliday, 1833) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Pentapleura pumilio (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius levis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma caesa (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
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