The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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BUPHTHALMUM. [Asteraceae]


Only one species of Buphthalmum is recorded in Britain. It is introduced.

Three British miners are recorded on Buphthalmum.

A key to the European miners recorded on Buphthalmum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Buphthalmum


1a > Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings (British leafminers).

Polyphagous. On more than 40 host genera in 15 families, but not yet on Buphthalmum, in Britain,. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf miner: An irregularly linear mine which can be both on the upper and lower leaf surface. Pupation takes place either at the end of the mine in an exit slit cut in the leaf or on the ground (Spencer, 1972b: 70 (fig. 226), 73; Spencer, 1976: 407 (fig. 712), 408).

Upper surface corridor, often following the midrib for some distance. Frequently the very first part of the mine is lower-surface, and sometimes the entire mine remains at the lower surface. The corridor is wide from the start, with irregular sides. Frass initially in two rows of fine grains; further on the grains become larger and more irregular, sometimes forming pearl chains, and are dispersed less regularly. Pupation takes place either outside or within the mine. When the larva has left the mine a semicircular exit slit is made. When the puparium is formed within the mine the spiracles do not penetrate the epidermis, and an irregular semicircular opening is made in the epidermis in front of the puparium (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mines down the leaf from the tip, then doubles back and then mines towards the apex, often doubling back a second time, towards the leaf base (British leafminers).

On Inula and Pulicaria, but not yet on Buphthalmum, in Britain and additional genera of Asteraceae elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe and particularly common in the Mediterranean area

Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: A large, brownish blotch, with conspicuous feeding lines. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 62 (fig. 205), 63; Spencer, 1976: 308, 309 (fig. 557)).

Large, brown, upper-surface blotch with conspicuous primary and secondary feeding lines. The feeding lines are the more apparent because the semiliquid frass adheres to them. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in the upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A short broad gallery, normally at the margin, leading to a blotch with obvious feeding lines in whorls. Mines go brown (British leafminers).

On Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea, but not yet on Buphthalmum, in Britain. On Aster, Baccharis, Buphthalum, Erectites and Soligago elsewhere.

Nemorimyza posticata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].



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