The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


PHYTEUMA. Rampions. [Campanulaceae]

Four species of Phyteuma are recorded in Britain. These include the native Round-headed Rampion (P. orbiculare) and Spiked Rampion (P. spicatum).

Spiked Rampion (P. spicatum) is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981.

Five British miners are recorded on Phyteuma.

A key to the European miners recorded on Phyteuma is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Round-headed Rampion - Phyteuma orbiculare. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Round-headed Rampion
Phyteuma orbiculare

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Phyteuma

1a > Stem miner: An external stem mine with frass in two rows of disconnected strips. Pupation in stem at end of mine (Spencer, 1972b: 25; Spencer, 1976: 61 (fig. 63B), 65-6).

Polyphagous. On Campanula, Jasione, Phyteuma [Campanulaceae], Crepis, Hypochaeris and Lapsana [Asteraceae] in Britain and additional genera of both families elsewhere. Uncommon in Britain - recorded in London, Warwick and Cambridge. Uncommon but Widespread in continental Europe.

Ophiomyia heringi Stary, 1930 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner


2a > Leaf-miner: A distinctive mine primarily above mid-rib, with irregular short lateral offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972: 51 (fig. 172), 55; Spencer, 1976: 270, 271 (fig. 486)).

Branched, whitish, upper-surface corridor; main axis overlying the midrib; side branches overlying the main lateral veins. (In Campanula and Phyteuma the mine is much less branched, sometimes nothing more than a corridor on top of the midrib). Frass in rather long strings. Usually the mines begins as a long and narrow, shallow, tortuous lower-surface corridor that ends upon the midrib but otherwise is not associated with the leaf venation. Often this initial corridor is filled with callus, and then even less conspicuous. Pupation outside the mine.

A linear mine on the upper surface, usually following the midrib and showing side branches along the veins. The frass is in strings.

Polyphagous. On more than 40 host genera in 15 families in Britain including Campanula, but not yet on Phyteuma, Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Liriomyza strigata (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2b > Leaf-miner: Mine not primarily above mid-rib.


3a > Leaf-miner: A shallow whitish linear-blotch mine. Puparium yellowish brown; outside the mine

On Campanula glomerata and Campanula rotundifolia, but not yet on Phyteuma, in Britain. In addition on other genera and species of Campanulaceae elsewhere. Recorded in England. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Japan.

Amauromyza gyrans (Fallén, 1823) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3b > Leaf-miner: An irregular whitish linear mine which can broaden at end and become blotch-like (Spencer, 1976: 397).

On Campanula glomerata, Campanula rotundifolia and Campanula trachelium, but not yet on Phyteuma, in Britain. In addition on other species of Campanulaceae elsewhere.

Phytomyza campanulae Hendel, 1920 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].
3c > Leaf-miner: Very long, rather deep corridor, initially lower-surface, later upper-surface. In smaller leaves almost always a secondary blotch originates, that can occupy the entire leaf. Frass initially in pearl strings, later in scattered aggregations. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis.

Hosts in Britain unknown. On Campanula and Phyteuma elsewhere. Added to the British checklist by Henshaw in Chandler, 1998. Widespread in continental Europe.

Phytomyza rapunculi Hendel, 1927 [Diptera: Agromyzidae]

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