The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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PINUS. Pines. [Pinaceae]


Eighteen species and two subspecies of Pinus are recorded in Britain. All except Scots Pine (P. sylvestris) are introduced. The BSBI provide a downloadable plant crib for conifers.

Seven British British miners are recorded on Pinus.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Pinus


1a > Leaf-miner and case-bearer: The larva lives in a silken tube, covered with fragments of bark and lichen on the bark of the older part of a branch. From this tube the larva mines the basal half of a number of leaves. The larva moults in the tube, and pupates in a side branch of it. (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Picea, but not yet on Pinus, in Britain and Abies and Picea elsewhere. Widepread in Britain and continental Europe.

Batrachedra pinicolella (Zeller, 1839) [Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae].

1b > Leaf-miner: A relatively large, ribbed, oval egg is deposited near the base of the needle, on the outer, convex, side. The emerging larva at first makes a wavy, epidermal, corridor, running in the direction of the needle tip. Soon the gallery becomes deeper and fills the entire needle. The larva works itself to close to the tip of the needle; the mine behind it is almost completely filled with frass. Pupation external; the exit opening is just under the tip, in the flat side of the needle Bladmineerders van Europa). The range-red larva feeds internally in a needle, working its way from the base to the tip. It may then feed externally in a slight web (UKMoths). Pupation in a white cocoon on the ground. The pupa is initially green, then darkens as it matures (British leafminers).

On Pinus in Britain and elsewhere. A widespread but local species occurring over much of England and Scotland in its favoured habitat, pine woodland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Cedestis gysseleniella Zeller, 1839 [Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: A species associated with coniferous woodland, which feeds internally on the needles (UKMoths). Oviposition on the tip of the flat side of the needle; the egg is oval, smooth, with a characteristic longitudinal keel. From here the mine descends, full depth, towards the base of the needle. The space behind the larva is completely filled with granular frass. The larval chamber is so transparant that the larva inside is easily visible. The larva vacates the mine prior to pupation by a round opening near the end of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa). Pupation in a white cocoon on the ground. The pupa is initially green, then darkens as it matures (British leafminers).

On Pinus in Britain and elsewhere. Fairly well distributed throughout Britain, though less common in the north and west. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Cedestis subfasciella (Stephens, 1834) [Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: The larvae feed internally on the needles, overwintering in this stage (UKMoths). The mine begins in the tip of a needle, and descends towards the base. The larva hibernates in its first needle. After hibernation the larva bores through the bud scales into the base of young needles, causing them to drop. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Pinus in Britain and elsewhere. Widely distributed in England and Wales. Widespread in continental Europe.

Clavigesta purdeyi (Durrant, 1911) [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae].

1e > Leaf-miner: The larva feeds inside the apical part of the needle in the autumn and ejects most of the frass from holes at either end of the mine. After hibernation it then feeds on spun needles and shoots (British leafminers). The larva enters the needle at about three quarter of its length, at the flat side; the opening is closed with silk (picture above). From here the larva mines upwards (rarely also a small distance downwards).The larva lives in a spacious larval chamber in the lowest part of the mine, lined with stripes of dense spinning. The frass is accumulated in the apical part of the mine. Sometimes one, more rarely two, openings are made to eject part of the frass; these openings too are closed with silk, and are difficult to find. No egg shell is visible at the start of the mine. The larva hibernates in the mine; in the following spring it feeds on the shoots and in spun needles (Hering, 1957a). Pupation external, in a bud (Freeman, 1960a). (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Larix and Pinus in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in Britain, Ireland and continental Europe.

Exoteleia dodecella (Linnaeus, 1758) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae].

1f > Leaf-miner: The larva feeds within the needle from the tip to base and exits close to the base (British leafminers). The mine begins at an oval egg on the flat side of the tip of a needle. Working from here the larva mines the needle for about one quarter of its length. Apart from the larval chamber, the entire mine is filled with frass. The full grown larva leaves the mine by an opening made at the end of te mine, then forms a cocoon between a few needles that have been spun together. Only the pupa enables discrimination from O. piniarella (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Pinus in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Ocnerostoma friesei Svensson, 1966 [Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae].

1g > Leaf-miner: The larva feeds within the needle from the tip to base (British leafminers). The mine begins in the tip of a needle, and descends to about three quarter of its length. With the exception of the larval chamber the entire mine is filled with frass, giving the needle a vinous colour. The mine is so transparant the the larva is visible in its chamber (Hering, 1957a). The full grown larva leaves the mine by making an opening, then forms an elongate cocoon out of silk between a few spun needles (Koch, 1932a; Freeman, 1960a) (Bladmineerders van Europa). Pupation in a white cocoon between spun needles (British leafminers).

On Pinus in Britain and elsewhere. The distribution of this species is not fully understood due to confusion with the very similar Ocnerostoma friesei, but is believed to be relatively widespread in much of England and Scotland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Ocnerostoma piniariella Zeller, 1847 [Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae].



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