species associated with coniferous woodland, which feeds internally
on the needles (UKMoths).
on the tip of the flat side of the needle; the egg is oval, smooth,
with a characteristic longitudinal keel. From here the mine descends,
full depth, towards the base of the needle. The space behind the
larva is completely filled with granular frass. The larval chamber
is so transparant that the larva inside is easily visible. The larva
vacates the mine prior to pupation by a round opening near the end
of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is a green-blue colour (British
leafminers). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in a white cocoon on the ground. The pupa is initially green, then
darkens as it matures (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
The female genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: December - April (British
of year - adults: The adult moths have quite a long emergence
period, from March until July, when they can be attracted to light
in Great Britain & Ireland: Fairly well distributed throughout
Britain, though less common in the north and west (UKMoths),
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Devon (VC3), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, North and
Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: