Leaf-miner: The larvae forms large whitish or translucent blotches (UKMoths).
large, untidy blotch, full-depth for most of its surface, very transparent,
without feeding lines and without association with midrib or leaf
margin. The larva makes several mines. Often only its anterior part
is inserted in the mine, that remains free of frass then. Pupation
outside the mine in a silk cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa, British
leafminers and UKMoths.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in British
leafminers and UKMoths
and is formed in a cocoon fashioned from a network of silk.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June, September (British
of year - adults: The adults generally emerge in two generations,
firstly in July and then in October, the second brood overwintering
in this stage (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A small inconspicuous species,
distributed mainly in the southern half of England, with a few scattered
records further north, although it is probably overlooked (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14),
Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Isle of Wight (VC10),
Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). Also Yardley Chase, Northants (British
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central,
Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: