larvae mine the leaves creating a long, meandering gallery containing
narrow blackish frass. In later instars, the larva feeds externally
larvae in a very long, hair thin, winding corridor. Usually the
corridor is (largely) upper-surface. Frass initially in a narrow
continuous central line; further on the frass line is often interrupted.
Older larvae live free and cause window feeding, usually at the
leaf underside (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in UKMoths.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: January - April and July (British
of year - adults: Two generations, flying in April and May and
again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widely distributed over much
of the British Isles (UKMoths),
including Lancaster (Greater Manchester, St. Helens (British
leafminers) and Littleborough (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Merionethshire (VC48), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40),
South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire including Lancaster (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia
- Central, East and Northwest, Sardinia, ? Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: