and case-bearer: The early case is tiny and the larva makes
a series of tiny holes on the leaf. After overwintering it makes
a shiny pistol shaped case in spring and window feeds (British
young larva, before hibernation, makes tiny mines, sometimes tens
in one leaf. After hibernation window feeding is done. In this latter
stage the larva lives in a shining black pistol case of about 7
mm, that, with a mouth angle of 70°-80°, stands almost perpendicular
on the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Described by Emmet et al. (1996a); three pairs of abdominal prolegs
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August - May (British
of year - adults: June and July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurs in England and Wales,
commoner in the south (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), East Gloucestershire (VC33),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See NDBC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Romania, Russia - Central and South, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: