and case-bearer: The larva initially forms a gallery along the
midrib, which then goes out along a vein. The end of this gallery
is then excised to construct the first case. It then feeds close
to this and makes several small mines (British
final case is a small, laterally compressed, squat, spatulate leaf
case of 5-6 mm. The dorsal keel has some serrations, remnants of
the leaf margin out of which the case was cut. The rear is twovalved,
and remarkably broad. The mouth angle is 0-10°.
description and illustration of the final case in Emmet et al. (1996a)
is not quite clear. They depict a rather slender case, and state
that the mouth angle is 30°. But, as the only illustration in
the other literature that would agree with the British badiipennella,
they refer to Hering (1957a, fig. 701): this illustration, however,
has no resemblance to their own figure, and has a mouth angle of
et al. write that the larva begins its life by making a gallery
of 10-15 mm that runs from the midrib along a side vein; out if
this mine the first youth case is excised (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Nigel Whinney.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - May (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in June and July and occasionally
come to light.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Locally distributed throughout
much of England (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), Huntingdonshire (VC31), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). It occurs around the edges of woodland and prefers
saplings to mature trees (UKMoths).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
- South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The
Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.