and case-bearer: This species produces a distinctive larval case in its later stages
with a noticeably serrated upper edge, and affixed almost parallel
to the leaf surface. The larvae overwinter when small and recommence
feeding in late spring (UKMoths).
generally in a vein axil. From there a short, relatively wide corridor
is made that quickly widens into an elliptical blotch. Much of the
frass is ejected through the hole that the larva has made to bore
itself into the leaf (in C.
badiipennella, on the same host plant, the frass remains
within the mine. This blotch is excised to make the juvenile case.
The full grown larva lives in a brown spatulate leaf case of 9-11.5
mm; its rear end is bivalved. Mouth angle 0°-20°; just behind
the mouth the case shows a conspicuous bend (Bladmineerders van Europa).
traces and the case are illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
and ? female
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September to October, feeding again in June
and July (British
of year - adults: The elusive adults emerge in June and July
in Great Britain & Ireland: Distributed mainly in the south
and south-east of England (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27),
East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Radnorshire (VC43),
Shropshire (VC40), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Also recorded from the Republic of Ireland. See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map (as milvipennis (= limospinella auctorum).
NBN Grid Map:
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions
Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Latvia,
Lithuania, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Sardinia,
Sicily, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands. Also recorded
in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: