Leaf-miner: The mine begins as a contorted gallery, when the young larva can
be seen to have dark plates on each segment. These plates are later
lost and the gallery becomes a blotch with scattered frass (UKMoths).
begins at a globular, black, lower-surface egg shell. From there
starts a short tortuous corridor, that widens into a blotch, often
between to lateral veins. Frass dispersed. Pupation outside the
mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Yellow with light brown head, lies belly-up in the mine. Young larvae with a series of 12 black ventral plates (van Nieukerken, 1985a). See Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - September (British
of year - adults: There is one generation, with adults in May
and June (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A relatively local species occurring
in the south and west of England and parts of Scotland (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Glamorganshire (VC41),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), Shropshire (VC40),
South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
also occurs in the Republic of Ireland (as south-west Ireland) (UKMoths). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland,
Germany, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Russia - North, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands.
Also recorded in the East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.