The larva mines downwards and forms an irregular mine with a silken
tube in the centre, which is mixed with frass (British
transparent (therefore conspicuous), generally descending from the
leaf tip. Over the entire length of the mine stretches a central
silken tube, in which the larva can retreat and can move quickly
up or down. The tube also contains the frass. The larva feeds laterally
from the tube, which makes the sides of the mine very irregular
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in British
leafminers, UKMoths and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by John Walters.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September-April (British
of year - adults: There is a single generation, adults flying
during May and June (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Distributed in southern England
and Wales, and also occurring in parts of northern England and Ireland
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Denbighshire (VC50), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36),
Isle of Wight (VC10), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), South Wiltshire (VC8), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway) and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Poland, Romania,
Russia - Central, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: