Epinotia pygmaeana (Hübner, 1799)
[Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]

Dingy Spruce Bell

The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Tortrix pygmaeana Hübner, 1799. Europ Schmett. Tort.: 69.
Epinotia pygmaeana
(Hübner, 1799).


Leaf-miner: Groups of young needles are completely mined out by the young larvae. Between the needles only a few strands of silk (often also bud scales are trapped in the silk). Later in summer the larva lives free among spun needles (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Light greenish, with black brown head and pronotum. Anal comb present, c. 6 prongs. Pinacula moderately large, concolorous with the integument. Prolegs with c. 45 crochets in a double row (Bradley et al., 1979a; Grandi 1931a, 1933a; Swatschek, 1958a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Graham Featherstone. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group (check for update).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Pinaceae        
Abies       Pitkin & Plant
Picea       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Pinaceae        
Abies alba European Silver-fir British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Picea abies Norway Spruce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa

Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Spring (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire, Brecon, Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Cardiganshire, Denbighshire, Dorset, Dunbarton, East Cornwall, East Norfollk, East Suffolk, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Kirkudbrightshire, Middlesex, North Aberdeen, North Somerset, Shropshire, South Aberdeen, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, West Norfolk and West Suffolk (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Abies alba, Picea abies, Picea sitchensis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Dibrachys microgastri (Bouché, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Psychophagus omnivorus (Walker, 1835) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, 1833 Trichogrammatidae: Trichogrammatinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coeloides abdominalis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Braconidae: Braconinae
Dolichogenidea lineipes (Wesmael, 1837)) Braconidae: Microgastrinae


External links: Search the internet:

Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths

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Last updated 21-Jul-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page