Groups of young needles are completely mined out by the young larvae.
Between the needles only a few strands of silk (often also bud scales
are trapped in the silk). Later in summer the larva lives free among
spun needles (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Light greenish, with black brown head and pronotum. Anal comb present,
c. 6 prongs. Pinacula moderately large, concolorous with the integument.
Prolegs with c. 45 crochets in a double row (Bradley et al., 1979a;
Grandi 1931a, 1933a; Swatschek, 1958a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Graham Featherstone. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
Spring (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), Staffordshire (VC39),
West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also
recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: