Eggs are deposited in groups of 4-5 on top of the midrib of a young
needle. The larva penetrates a needle through an oval opening made
in the lower half of a leaf, eats its way up to the tip, then down
again, finally leaving the leaf through the same opening. A number
of needles are mined in this way. The crossing is protected by spinning
between the needles. After a first moult the larva begins to mine
less young leaves. Older larvae live free mong spun neeldes (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Head black or yellowish brown with black sides; pronotum black.
Body pale yellowish to greyish green; pinacula inconspicuous (Bradley
et al., 1979a; Patocka, 1960a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
June - July; hibernation as a pupa (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: England including East Suffolk (VC25),
Herefordshire and South Hampshire (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, Luxembourg,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also
recorded in the Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.