The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Eriocrania sangii (Wood, 1891)
[Lepidoptera: Eriocraniidae]

Large Birch Purple


Micropteryx sangii Wood, 1891. Ent. mon. Mag. 27: 100
Eriocrania sangii
(Wood, 1891).


Leaf-miner: A blotch with large dark grey larva - discarded grey larval skin visible in vacated mine. The mine starts by the edge of the leaf (British leafminers).

Large, white, primary, full depth blotch, following upon a very short corridor. The blotch begins adjacent to the leaf margin, expanding deeper into the leaf. Frass in striking, long threads. Pupation in the soil. Vacated mines shrivel and wither away; later in summer no a trace remains (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Dark grey and quite distinctive if the mined leaf is held up to the light (UKMoths).

The larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betulaceae        
Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Pitkin & Plant
Betula       UKMoths

Hosts elsewhere:

Betulaceae        
Betula       Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: April - May (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: The adults fly in March and April (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Although stated in the literature as local in Britain (MBGBI), renewed interest in this group in recent years has shown the species to be well distributed and quite common, especially in northern England (UKMoths) including Banffshire, Bedfordshire, Brecon, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Dnebighshire, Dorset, Dunbarton, Durham, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussexintshire, Glamorgan, Haddington, Herefordshire, Hntingdonshire, Isle of Wight, Kincardineshire, Leicestershire, Main Argyll, Mid-west Yorkshire, North Aberdeen, North Somerset, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeen, South Hampshire, South Wiltshire, Stafford, Surrey, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Norfolk, West Suffolk, Westmorland, Wigtownshire and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Latvia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - North, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Host species unknown

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Cirrospilus diallus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Lathrolestes clypeatus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Ichneumonidae: Euryproctinae
Grypocentrus basalis Ruthe, 1855 Ichneumonidae: Tryphoniinae


External links: Search the internet:

Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas

NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths

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Last updated 09-Aug-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page