Leaf-miner: A blotch with large dark grey larva - discarded grey larval
skin visible in vacated mine. The mine starts by the edge of the
white, primary, full depth blotch, following upon a very short corridor.
The blotch begins adjacent to the leaf margin, expanding deeper
into the leaf. Frass in striking, long threads. Pupation in the
soil. Vacated mines shrivel and wither away; later in summer no
a trace remains (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Dark grey and quite distinctive if the mined leaf is held up to
the light (UKMoths).
larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: April - May (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in March and April (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Although stated in the literature
as local in Britain (MBGBI), renewed interest in this group in recent
years has shown the species to be well distributed and quite common,
especially in northern England (UKMoths)
including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland,
Germany, Latvia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - North,
Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: