larvae feed on a range of deciduous trees, windowing leaves in autumn
and eating the buds, catkins, young shoots and then spun leaves
in the spring (UKMoths).
The mine is illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Cocoon formed in soil or where the larva fed British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male and female
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - June (British
of year - adults: The normal flight period is July and August,
when the moths fly from dusk onwards (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: It is widely distributed over
England, Wales and Ireland, though commoner in the south (UKMoths),
including the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea); Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), Dorset (VC9), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Merionethshire (VC48), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40),
South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59),
South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38),
West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), West Sussex (VC13), Westmorland (VC69), Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Macedonia, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Russia - Central, Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also recorded in East Palaearctic
and Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: