The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter emberizaepennella (Bouché, 1834)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Large Midget


Ornix emberizaepennella Bouché, 1834. Naturg. Ins. 1: 32.
Phyllonorycter emberizaepennella
(Bouché, 1834).


Leaf-miner: The mine is large, occupying most of leaf. The lower epidermis with several strong creases (British leafminers).

Lower-surface, white, inflated tentiform mine, that may occupy the entire leaf. The mine causes the leaf to roll lengthwise (the folds in the lower epidermis run from leaf base to tip). Pupa in a tough, papery cocoon; in fresh mines its colour is olive green, later it changes into pale brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The cocoon and pupa are illustrated in British leafminers. The cremaster is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Watch a video of the adult.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Caprifoliaceae        
Leycesteria formosa Himalayan Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Leycesteria formosa Himalayan Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Lonicera       British leafminers
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Symphoricarpos       British leafminers
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Caprifoliaceae        
Lonicera alpigena     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera x bella     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera caerulea     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera deflexicalyx     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera flava     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera gracilipes     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera ledebourii Californian Honeysuckle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera macki     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera morrowii Morrow's Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera nigra     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera orientalis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera prostrata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera rupicola     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera tatarica Tartarian Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera webbiana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera xylosteum Fly Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July, September - October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Anglesey, Banffshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Merionethshire, North Aberdeenshire, North Wiltshire, Northamptonshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeenshire, South Wiltshire, Stafford and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine. Also recorded in East Palaearctic, Near East and Nearctic region (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Leycesteria formosa, Lonicera ledebourii, Lonicera morrowii, Lonicera periclymenum, Lonicera tatarica, Lonicera xylosteum, Symphoricarpos albus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Sympiesis dolichogaster Ashmead, 1888 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Rhysipolis meditator (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Rhysipolinae
Diadegma lithocolletis Horstmann, 1969 Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma melanium (Thomson, 1887) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma parvicanda (Thomson, 1887) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Enytus parvicanda (Thomson, 1887) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Porizon transfuga (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Bathythrix prominens (Strobl 1901) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus signatus (Pfeffer, 1913) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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Last updated 07-May-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page