The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter trifasciella (Haworth, 1828)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Honeysuckle Midget


Tinea trifasciella Haworth, 1828. Lep. Brit.: 576.
Phyllonorycter trifasciella
(Haworth, 1828).


Leaf-miner: The mine is usually underside, often twisting leaf into a cone (British leafminers). The mines can be quite abundant where it is found (UKMoths).

Lower surface tentiform mine between leaf margin and midrib; the mine contracts diagonally, causing the leaf to roll transversely or into a pepper box (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The cremaster is illustrated in British leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia of Life. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Caprifoliaceae        
Leycesteria       British leafminers
Leycesteria       UKMoths
Leycesteria formosa Himalayan Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Lonicera       British leafminers
Lonicera       UKMoths
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Symphoricarpos       British leafminers
Symphoricarpos       UKMoths
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Emmet, Watkinson and Wilson, 1985a
Symphoricarpos rivularis     Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Caprifoliaceae        
Lonicera alpigena     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera caprifolium Perfoliate Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera etrusca     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera nigra     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lonicera xylosteum Fly Honeysuckle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: March - April, July - August, October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Unusual among Phyllonorycter species in having three generations, with adults on the wing in November, as well as the usual May and August periods (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: A common and widespread species throughout the British Isles (UKMoths) including Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Caernarvonshire, Carmarthenshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, East Cornwall, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Merionethshire, Middlesex, North Devon, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeen, South Devon, South Wiltshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Cornwall, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Lancaster, West Norfolk, West Suffolk, Westmorland and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Corsica, Danish mainland, Dodecanese Is., French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Russia - Central, Sardinia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Leycesteria formosa, Lonicera caprifolium, Lonicera periclymenum, Lonicera xylosteum, Symphoricarpos albus, Symphoricarpos rivularis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Sympiesis acalle (Walker, 1848) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Bathythrix thomsoni (Kerrich, 1942) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Scambus calobatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
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Last updated 09-May-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page