Leaf-miner: The larvae feed on the leaves of lime and birch, mining the
leaves when young (UKMoths).
at the leaf upperside. Mine a short, irregular, full depth corridor,
always at the leaf margin, generally in the tip of the leaf. Frassly
broadly scattered. The older larva lives free on the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths
(by Duncan Williams) and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Two generations, at least in the south of
the range, with adults on the wing in May and June and again in
August and September (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Mainly distributed in the southern
half of England (UKMoths)
and Wales including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), East Norfolk (VC27),
East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), Huntingdonshire (VC31), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40),
South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16),
West Norfolk (VC28), and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). There are also scattered localities in Wales and
in Scotland where the species occurs (UKMoths).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central
and North, Sardinia, Slovakia, Sweden and Switzerland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: