Leaf-miner: An early gallery filled with greenish frass, later leaving clear
at the underside of the leaf, near a vein. The mine is a clear corridor,
often with a hairpin turn, the section before the turn often following
the leaf margin. The first section of the mine is entirely filled
with greyish green frass. Further on the frass line is quite variable,
black, sometimes coiled, always leaving a clear zone at either side.
The shift in the frass pattern usually is quite sharp (probably
coincides with a moult). The frass is deposited on the ceiling of
the mine. Pupation external; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is bright yellow, head pale brown (British
larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The gentialia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, October - December (British
of year - adults: Two generations, May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A fairly common species throughout
the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Ayrshire (VC74), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Edinburgh, Elgin,
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Leicestershire (VC55), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), North-west Yorkshire (VC65), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92),
South Essex (VC18), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61),
South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway) and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia,
Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Russia - East and Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also present
in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
nitetis (Walker, 1939)
pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838)
|Chrysocharis prodice (Walker, 1839)
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Sceptrothelys deione (Walker, 1839)
|Seladerma aeneum (Walker, 1833)
stylata Förster, 1862
stylata Förster, 1862
|Adelius erythronotus (Förster, 1851)
|Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Deuterixys rimulosa (Niezabitowski, 1910)
|Mirax rufilabris Haliday, 1833