Leaf-miner: First generation, short gallery, frass in thick line. Second generation,
longer gallery, frass in narrower line (British
at under- or upperside, usually well away from the leaf margin.
The mine is a short, rather broad and quite tortuous corridor. In
the first half the frass forms a very narrow central line; in the
second half the frass is dispersed more widely, but never filling
more than one third of the width of the gallery (Bladmineerders van Europa).
It is recommended that you try to rear out the adults to be certain of their identity.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is a whitish-yellow and has dark prothoracic sclerites,
which help distinguish it from S.
roborella, with a pale head only (British
The larva is described by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a).
The larva has dark coloured sclerites in the prothorax; uncertain
of this is a constant character (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, September - November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in the Britain including
Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106),
East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93),
North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, ? Estonia,
French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Lithuania, Macedonia, Madeira, Norwegian mainland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: