The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Amauromyza labiatarum (Hendel, 1920)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Dizygomyza labiatarum Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7)(1918): 134
Dizygomyza labiatarum Hendel, 1920; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 73
Amauromyza labiatarum (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 43 (fig. 138). 46
Amauromyza (Trilobomyza) labiatarum (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 165-6, figs 301-3.
Amauromyza labiatarum (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 204, 205, 206 (fig. 767), 211, 222, 231.


Leaf-mine: A linear-blotch mine, first instar mine is linear, later developing into a conspicuous white blotch. Frass greenish diffused (Spencer, 1972b: 46, 47 (fig. 138); Spencer, 1976: 166).

The mine begins with a long, upper-surface, slender corridor. After a moult the larva changes its behaviour, and makes a large, upper-surface primary blotch without apparent feeding lines. Often the blotch overruns more or less the initial corridor. Frass in the corridor liquified to form a wide green band, with a few tiny black granules along the sides. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

An narrow gallery leading to a largish blotch on the upper surface. Frass is green and indistinct in the gallery - small grains may be seen at the gallery edge (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1925) and in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Deeply segmented; posterior spiracles on short projection, each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 167).

Amauromyza labiatarum puparium
Amauromyza labiatarum puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Stachys officinalis is treated as Betonica officinalis (Betony) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Lamiaceae        
Ajuga       Robbins, 1991: 104
Ajuga       British leafminers
Ajuga reptans Bugle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ajuga reptans Bugle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Ballota       Robbins, 1991: 101
Ballota       Spencer, 1972b: 46
Ballota       British leafminers
Ballota nigra Black Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991
Ballota nigra Black Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Galeopsis       Robbins, 1991: 102
Galeopsis       British leafminers
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 21
Glechoma       Robbins, 1991: 102
Glechoma       British leafminers
Lamiastrum       Robbins, 1991: 101
Lamiastrum galeobdolon Yellow Archangel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Lamiastrum galeobdolon Yellow Archangel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lamium       Mines in BMNH
Lamium       Robbins, 1991: 102
Lamium       Spencer, 1972b: 116
Lamium       British leafminers
Lamium album White Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lamium album White Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Lamium purpureum Red Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lamium rubrum     Spencer, 1972b: 116
Marrubium       Pitkin & Plant
Prunella       British leafminers
Stachys       Robbins, 1991: 101
Stachys       British leafminers
Stachys       Spencer, 1972b: 117
Stachys officinalis Betony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Stachys palustris Marsh Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 21
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 21
Teucrium       British leafminers
Teucrium scorodonia Wood Sage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Teucrium scorodonia Wood Sage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Verbenaceae        
Verbena officinalis Vervain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
? Verbena officinalis ? Vervain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121

Hosts elsewhere:

Lamiaceae        
Ajuga       Spencer, 1990: 205
Ajuga genevensis Cornish Bugle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Ajuga reptans Bugle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ballota       Spencer, 1976: 166
Ballota       Spencer, 1990: 205
Ballota nigra Black Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis       Spencer, 1990: 205
Galeopsis pubescens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis speciosa Large-flowered Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamiastrum galeobodolon Yellow Archangel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium       Spencer, 1976: 166
Lamium       Spencer, 1990: 205
Lamium album White Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium amplexicaule Henbit Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium maculatum Spotted Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium purpureum Red Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leonurus cardiaca Motherwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lycopus europaeus Gypsywort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
      Spencer, 1990: 205
Marrubium vulgare White Horehound British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Melittis       Spencer, 1990: 205
Melittis melissophyllum Bastard Balm British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mentha       Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunella vulgaris Selfheal British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Scutellaria       Spencer, 1990: 205
Scutellaria altissima Somerset Skullcap   Bladmineerders van Europa
Scutellaria galericulata Skullcap British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys       Spencer, 1976: 166
Stachys       Spencer, 1990: 205
Stachys alpina Limestone Woundwort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys germanica Downy Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys officinalis Betony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys palustris Marsh Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys recta Perennial Yellow-woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Teucrium       Spencer, 1990: 205
Teucrium chamaedrys Wall Germander British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Teucrium scorodonia Wood Sage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and locally common in south, also Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd), Perth (Killin) (Spencer, 1972b: 46); Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 101), Anglesey, Breconshire, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, East Cornwall, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Suffolk, Edinburgh, Fife, Flintshire, Hertfordshire, Leiccestershire, Main Argyll, Mid-west Yorkshire, North Devon, North-east Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, South Lancaster, South Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey and West Gloucestershire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Killarney (Killarney) (Spencer, 1972b: 46). See NDBC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and frequently common in Europe, including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 166), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 550), Albania, Austria, Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Ajuga genevensis, Ajuga reptans, Ballota nigra, Galeopsis speciosa, Galeopsis tetrahit, Glechoma hederacea, Lamiastrum galeobdolon, Lamium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Lamium maculatum, Lamium purpureum, Leonurus cardiaca, Lycopus europaeus, Marrubium vulgare, Melittis melissophyllum, Prunella vulgaris, Scutellaria altissima, Scutellaria galericulata, Stachys alpina, Stachys germanica, Stachys officinalis (= Betonica officinalis), Stachys palustris, Stachys recta, Stachys sylvatica, Teucrium chamaedrys, Teucrium scorodonia, Verbena officinalis

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Miscogaster elegans Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus avesta (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus trilobomyzae Griffiths, 1968 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dapsilarthra sylvia (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Atormus victus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Eurytenes abnormis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Eurytenes polyzonius Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius cingulatus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ochrogaster Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius singularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Rhogadopsis reconditor Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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