The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Pea leaf-miner


Phytomyza horticola Goureau, 1851. Annls. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 9: 148
Phytomyza horticola Goureau, 1851; Griffiths, 1967b. Stuttgarter Beitr. Ent. 177: 11
Phytomyza horticola Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 87
Phytomyza horticola Goureau, 1851; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 431-33, figs 751-5.
Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 265, 266 (fig. 1005), and more.
Phytomyza horticola Goureau, 1851; Winkler et al. 2009. Syst. ent. 34: 260-292.


Leaf-mine: Mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface. Pupation internal, at the end of the mine with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 433).

Upper-surface, less often lower-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation within the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupariuml chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long whitish upper surface corridor, which eventually goes lower surface (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larvae is described by Dempewolf (2001: 202).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Whitish (Spencer, 1976: 433). The anterior spiracles penetrate the plant epidermis as a pair of tiny hooks (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Comments: Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded on Asteraceae in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy), which is almost entirely restricted to Asteraceae and horticola (Goureau), which mines numerous plant families including Asteraceae. The two species can only be distinguished by the structure of the male genitalia.

British records of syngenesiae, horticola or 'atricornis' on hosts other than Asteraceae in Britain, except when the male genitalia have been examined (i.e. Dahlia), are assumed here to represent horticola.

British records of horticola and syngenesiae on Asteraceae hosts not based on examination of the genitalia of reared males are treated here as Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.

Hosts cited here include 160 plant genera in 31 families of which 55 plant genera in 19 families are records for Britain.

As the mines of horticola and syngenesiae are indistinguishable, the chalcidoid parasitoids recorded from these two species are listed under 'atricornis '.

Lavatera arborea is treated as Malva arborea (Tree-mallow) and Lycopersicon esculentumis treated as Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Pastinaca       Robbins, 1991: 66
Asteraceae        
Dahlia       Griffiths, 1967b
Dahlia       Spencer, 1972b: 113
Dahlia pinnata Dahlia   Pitkin & Plant
Gaillardia       Pitkin & Plant
Brassicaceae        
Alliaria petiolata Garlic Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Armoracia       Robbins, 1991: 30
Armoracia rusticana Horse-Radish   Pitkin & Plant
Brassica       Robbins, 1991: 30
Brassica nigra Black Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Brassica nigra Black Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Capsella       Robbins, 1991: 30
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd's-purse British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd's-purse British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Cheiranthus       Robbins, 1991: 30
Cheiranthus cheiri     Pitkin & Plant
Coincya wrightii Lundy Cabbage   Compton and Key, 2000
Conringia       Robbins, 1983-7
Conringia orientalis Hare's-ear Mustard   Pitkin & Plant
Eruca Rocket     Rob Edmunds (pers. comm.)
Hesperis matronalis Dame's-violet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Hesperis matronalis Dame's-violet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Lepidium       Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Lepidium draba Hoary Cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Sinapis       Robbins, 1991: 30
Sisymbrium       Robbins, 1991: 30
Sisymbrium assoanum     Spencer, 1972b: 116
Sisymbrium officinale Hedge Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Thlaspi       Robbins, 1991: 30
Campanulaceae        
Jasione montana Sheep's-bit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Cannabaceae        
Cannabis sativa Hemp British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Chenopodiaceae        
Chenopodium       Robbins, 1991: 36
Cucurbitaceae        
Bryonia       Robbins, 1991: 68 (as syngenesiae)
Bryonia dioica White Bryony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Cucurbita maxima Pumpkin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Cucurbita pepo Marrow   Pitkin & Plant
Cucumis sativus Cucumber   Pitkin & Plant
Fabaceae        
Lathyrus       Robbins, 1983: 22
Lupinus       Mines in BMNH
Lupinus       Robbins, 1991: 41
Lupinus polyphyllus Garden Lupin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Medicago       Robbins, 1991: 44
Melilotus       Pitkin & Plant
Melilotus officinalis Ribbed Melilot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Phaseolus       Pitkin & Plant
Pisum       Robbins, 1983: 22
Pisum       Spencer, 1972b: 84
Pisum       Spencer, 1973a
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Griffiths, 1967b
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Mines in BMNH
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Spencer, 1972b: 117
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Vicia sepium Bush Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Vicia sepium Bush Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Vicia tetrasperma Smooth Tare British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Lamiaceae        
Galeopsis       Robbins, 1991: 103 (as syngenesiae)
Galeopsis       Spencer, 1972b: 84
Galeopsis       Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 116
Mentha       Pitkin & Plant
Mentha spicata Spear Mint British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Ocimum basilicum Sweet Basil   Mines in BMNH
Liliaceae        
Allium sativum Garlic   Pitkin & Plant
Linaceae        
Linum       Robbins, 1991: 38
Malvaceae        
Alcea       Robbins, 1983: 22
Lavatera arborea Tree-mallow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Lavatera arborea Tree-mallow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Malva       Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Malva       Robbins, 1991: 37
Malva sylvestris Common Mallow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Papaveraceae        
Chelidonium       Robbins, 1991: 28
Meconopsis       Robbins, 1991: 28
Meconopsis cambrica Welsh Poppy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Papaver       Spencer, 1972b: 117
Papaver       Robbins, 1991: 28
Papaver rhoeas Common Poppy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Papaver somniferum Opium Poppy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Plantaginaceae        
Plantago       Robbins, 1991: 104
Plantago maritima Sea Plantain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Resedaceae        
Reseda       Robbins, 1991: 31
Reseda luteola Weld British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Scrophulariaceae        
Antirrhinum       Pitkin & Plant
Antirrhinum       Robbins, 1991: 99
Cymbalaria       Pitkin & Plant
Kickxia       Robbins, 1991: 99
Kickxia spp.     British leafminers
Linaria       Robbins, 1991: 99
Linaria purpurea Purple Toadflax British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Linaria vulgaris Common Toadflax British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Misopates       Pitkin & Plant
Solanaceae        
Atropa       Pitkin & Plant
Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Nicotiana       Pitkin & Plant
Nicotiana tabacum Tobacco   Spencer, 1973a
Tropaeolaceae      
Tropaeolum       Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Tropaeolum       Robbins, 1991: 31
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium   Spencer, 1972b: 120
Valerianaceae        
Centranthus       Robbins, 1991: 107
Valeriana       Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)

Hosts elsewhere:

Amaranthaceae        
Amaranthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Anacardiaceae        
Cotinus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Apiaceae        
Anethum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Apium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Astrantia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Conium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Coriandrum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Eryngium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ferula       Bladmineerders van Europa
Levisticum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Petroselinum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Pimpinella       Bladmineerders van Europa
Seseli       Bladmineerders van Europa
Asteraceae        
Ageratum       Spencer, 1990: 289
Ageratum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Alcea       Bladmineerders van Europa
Alyssum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Andryala       Spencer, 1990: 256
Arabidopsis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Artemisia       Spencer, 1990: 301
Bidens       Spencer, 1990: 320
Carduus       Spencer, 1990: 251
Carthamus       Spencer, 1990: 249
Catananche       Bladmineerders van Europa
Centaurea       Spencer, 1990: 251
Chrysanthemum       Spencer, 1990: 301
Cineraria       Spencer, 1990: 293
Cirsium       Spencer, 1990: 251
Cissampelopsis       Spencer, 1990: 293
Coreopsis       Spencer, 1990: 320
Cosmos       Spencer, 1990: 316
Cotula       Spencer, 1990: 301
Dahlia       Spencer, 1990: 309
Gaillardia       Spencer, 1990: 309
Galinsoga       Spencer, 1990: 316
Gazania       Spencer, 1990: 249
Gnaphalium       Spencer, 1990: 273
Gynura       Spencer, 1990: 293
Helianthus       Spencer, 1990: 316
Helichrysum       Spencer, 1990: 273
Inula       Spencer, 1990: 273
Lactuca       Spencer, 1990: 259
Launaea       Spencer, 1990: 259
Matricaria       Spencer, 1990: 301
Senecio       Spencer, 1990: 293
Sonchus       Spencer, 1990: 259
Tanacetum       Spencer, 1990: 301
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1990: 259
Boraginaceae        
Anchusa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Asperugo       Bladmineerders van Europa
Borago       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cerinthe       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cynoglossum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Echium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lappula       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lithospermum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Nonea       Bladmineerders van Europa
Symphytum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassicaceae        
Alliaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Alyssum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthyllis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Arabidopsis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Arabis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Armoracia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Aethionema       Bladmineerders van Europa
Aurinia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Barbarea       Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassica       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bunias       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cakile       Bladmineerders van Europa
Calepina       Bladmineerders van Europa
Capsella       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cochlearia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Coronopus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Crambe       Bladmineerders van Europa
Descurainia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Diplotaxis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Eruca       Bladmineerders van Europa
Iberis       Bladmineerders van Europa, as Aethionema
Lepidium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Myagrum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Peltaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Rorippa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Sisymbrium       Mines in BMNH
Sisymbrium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Campanulaceae        
Campanula       Bladmineerders van Europa
Jasione       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cannabaceae        
Cannabis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cannabis       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Cannabis       Spencer, 1990: 53
Humulus       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Humulus       Spencer, 1990: 53
Humulus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Caryophyllaceae        
Cerastium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex       Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Salicornia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Fabaceae        
Anthyllis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia narbonensis Narbonne Vetch   Mines in BMNH
Cucurbitaceae        
Bryonia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cucumis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cucurbita       Bladmineerders van Europa
Dipsacaceae        
Cephalaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Knautia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Scabiosa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Succisa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Euphorbiaceae        
Euphorbia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Fabaceae        
Anthyllis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cicer       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lupinus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ononis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Oxytropis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Phaseolus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Trigonella       Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Gentianaceae        
Blackstonia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamiaceae        
Ajuga       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ballota       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bystropogon       Bladmineerders van Europa
Clinopodium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lavandula       Bladmineerders van Europa
Leonurus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Mentha       Bladmineerders van Europa
Nepeta       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ocimum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Salvia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys       Bladmineerders van Europa
Teucrium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Liliaceae        
Allium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Linaceae        
Linum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Malvaceae        
Alcea       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Alcea       Spencer, 1990: 92
Alcea rosea Hollyhock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Anoda       Spencer, 1990: 92
Hibiscus       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Hibiscus       Spencer, 1990: 92
Hibiscus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Kitaibela       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Kitaibela       Spencer, 1990: 92
Lavatera triloba     Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Lavatera       Bladmineerders van Europa
Malva       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Malva       Bladmineerders van Europa
Malva borealis     Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Malva neglecta Dwarf Mallow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Palava       Hering 1957 (as atricornis)
Palava       Spencer, 1990: 92
Papaveraceae        
Chelidonium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Glaucium       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Glaucium       Spencer, 1990: 22
Meconopsis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Papaver       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Papaver       Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Papaver somniferum Opium Poppy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Papaver       Bladmineerders van Europa
Plantaginaceae        
Plantago       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Plantago lanceolata Ribwort Plantain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Plantago       Bladmineerders van Europa
Polemoniaceae        
Phlox       Bladmineerders van Europa
Polygonaceae        
Persicaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Primulaceae        
Anagallis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Resedaceae        
Reseda       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Reseda       Spencer, 1990: 86
Rosaceae        
Althaea       Bladmineerders van Europa
Rutaceae        
Ruta       Bladmineerders van Europa
Scrophulariaceae        
Antirrhinum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Linaria vulgaris Common Toadflax British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Linaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Scrophularia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Verbascum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Solanaceae        
Hyoscyamus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lycium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Petunia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Tropaeolum       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Tropaeolum       Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium   Griffiths, 1967b
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium   Mines in BMNH (as atricornis)
Tropaeolum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianaceae        
Centranthus       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Valeriana       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Centranthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Valeriana officinalis Common Valerian British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b, as Valeriana sambucifolia
Valeriana       Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianella       Bladmineerders van Europa
Valerianella       Hering, 1957 (as atricornis)
Verbenaceae        
Verbena       Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: Bivoltine, late Spring and early Autumn (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in southern Britain (Spencer, 1972b: 87) including Warwickshire (Holbrooks) (Robbins, 1991: 144); Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), North Somerset (VC6), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Surrey and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Atlas, may include records of horticola and/or syngenesiae).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Old World. Common throughout Europe including the Mediterranean area (Spencer, 1976: 432), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Dempewolf, 2001: 202), ? Albania, Austria, Azores, Canary Is., Corsica, Czech Republic, Denmark, European Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Madeira, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Africa, India, China and Japan, but not known from North or South America (Spencer, 1976: 432).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Alcea rosea, Alliaria petiolata, Allium sativum, Armoracia rusticana, Brassica nigra, Bryonia dioica, Cannabis sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Cheiranthus cheiri, Coincya wrightii, Conringia orientalis, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Dahlia pinnata, Galeopsis tetrahit, Hesperis matronalis, Jasione montana, Lavatera arborea (= Malva arborea), Lepidium draba, Linaria purpurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lupinus polyphyllus, Lycopersicon esculentum (= Solanum lycopersicum), Malva neglecta, Malva sylvestris, Meconopsis cambrica, Melilotus officinalis, Mentha spicata, Nicotiana tabacum, Papaver rhoeas, Papaver somniferum, Pisum sativum, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago maritima, Reseda luteola, Sisymbrium officinale, Tropaeolum majus, Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sambucifolia, Vicia narbonensis, Vicia sepium, Vicia tetrasperma

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: See Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.

Adults:

Wing of Chromatomyia horticola
Wing of Chromatomyia horticola


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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