The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Chrysanthemum Leaf-miner


Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849a. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (2) 4(24): 391
Phytomyza chrysanthemi Kowarz, 1891, in Lindner. JOURNAL: 242
Phytomyza syngenesiae (Hardy, 1849a); Griffiths, 1967b. Stuttgarter Beitr. Ent. 177: 177
Phytomyza syngenesiae (Hardy, 1849a); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 87
Phytomyza syngenesiae (Hardy, 1849a); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 510-11, figs 894-5.
Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 265, 266 (fig. 1004), and more
Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy, 1849a; Bland, 2000. Dipterists Digest 7: 11.
Phytomyza syngenesiae (Hardy, 1849a); Winkler et al. 2009. Syst. ent. 34: 260-292.


Leaf-mine: Mine linear, whitish, both upper and lower surface. Pupation internal, at the end of the mine, with the anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 510).

Generally upper-surface corridor. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupariuml chamber (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

White (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

White or more rarely darker, brownish (Spencer, 1976: 510). The puparium mostly is white (but parasited pupariria are black). The anterior spiracles penetrate the plant epidermis as tiny brown hooks (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Is normally white, but can be brown. The anterior spiracles project through the leaf epidermis (British leafminers).

Comments: Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau). Griffiths (1967b) after critical examination of male genitalia, confirmed that the hosts of syngenesiae are almost exclusively genera of Asteraceae, with just two exceptions, one on Daucus [Apiaceae] in Denmark and the other on Pisum [Fabaceae] in California, U.S.A. C. horticola mines numerous plant families including Asteraceae. The two species can only be distinguished by the structure of the male genitalia.

British records of syngenesiae, horticola or 'atricornis' on hosts other than Asteraceae in Britain, are assumed to represent horticola.

British records of horticola and syngenesiae on Asteraceae hosts not based on examination of the genitalia of reared males are treated here as Chromatomyia 'atricornis' and may represent either horticola or syngenesiae.

Recorded in Britain on 27 plant genera in the family Asteraceae and many more elsewhere.

As the mines of horticola and syngenesiae are indistinguishable, the chalcidoid parasitoids recorded from these two species are listed under 'atricornis '.

Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Arctium pubens Lesser Burdock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Arnoseris minima Lamb's Succory   Spencer, 1972b: 111
Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum     Griffiths, 1967b
Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum     Spencer, 1972b: 112
Inula crithmoides Golden-samphire British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Inula crithmoides Golden-samphire British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113
Leontodon autumnalis Autumn Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112
Senecio arvensis     Griffiths, 1967b
Senecio asper     Griffiths, 1967b
Senecio jacobaea Common Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Senecio jacobaea Common Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Serratula tinctoria Saw-wort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Serratula tinctoria Saw-wort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1967b
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1972b: 87
Taraxacum       Bland in Whiteley, 1994

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Achillea       Spencer, 1990: 301
Adenostyles       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ageratum houstonianum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Andryala       Bladmineerders van Europa
Arctium       Spencer, 1990: 251
Arnoseris       Spencer, 1990: 259
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Aster       Spencer, 1990: 274
Aster ericoides Heath Aster   Bladmineerders van Europa
Bellis       Spencer, 1990: 274
Bidens pilosa Black-jack   Bladmineerders van Europa
Bidens tripartita     Bladmineerders van Europa
Calendula officinalis Pot Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Callistephus chinensis China Aster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carduus bucephalus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Carduus crispus Welted Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carthamus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Centaurea calcitrapa Red Star-thistle   Bladmineerders van Europa
Centaurea jacea     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Centaurea angustifolia
Centaurea orientalis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chrysanthemum       Spencer, 1990: 301
Chrysanthemum indicum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chrysanthemum myconis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cicerbita muralis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cineraria       Spencer, 1990: 293
Cirsium appendiculatum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium helenioides Melancholy Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Conyza       Spencer, 1990: 274
Coreopsis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Coreopsis       Spencer, 1990: 320
Crepis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Crepis       Spencer, 1990: 259
Cryptostemma       Spencer, 1990: 249
Dahlia       Spencer, 1990: 309
Dahlia pinnata Dahlia   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dahlia pinnata Dahlia   Bladmineerders van Europa, as Dahlia variabilis
Erigeron canadense Canadian Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Filago       Bladmineerders van Europa
Gaillardia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Gaillardia       Spencer, 1990: 309
Galinsoga parviflora Gallant Soldier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Galinsoga quadriradiata Shaggy Soldier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Gerbera jamesonii Barberton daisy   Bladmineerders van Europa
Helianthus annuus Sunflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Helichrysum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Helichrysum       Spencer, 1990: 354
Helminthia echioides     Bladmineerders van Europa
Inula       Spencer, 1990: 273
Inula oculus-christi Hairy Fleabane   Bladmineerders van Europa
Kleinia neriifolia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca       Spencer, 1990: 259
Lactuca sativa Garden Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca serriola     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Lactuca scariola
Lactuca viminea Pliant Lettuce   Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon autumnalis Autumn Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon hispidus Rough Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leucanthemum       Spencer, 1990: 301
Leucanthemum vulgare Oxeye Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Matricaria       Spencer, 1990: 301
Othonna       Spencer, 1990: 293
Picris       Spencer, 1990: 259
Pulicaria dysenterica Common Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Reichardia picroides Common brighteyes   Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio       Spencer, 1990: 293
Senecio aquaticus Marsh Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio cruentus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio jacobaea Common Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio nebrodensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio squalidus Oxford Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio viscosus Sticky Groundsel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio vulgaris Groundsel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus       Spencer, 1990: 259
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus glaucescens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus leptocephalus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1990: 259
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Tripleurospermum inodora     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Matricaria inodora
Xeranthemum       Spencer, 1990: 251
Zinnia elegans Youth-and-age   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August.

Time of year - adults: August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common throughout Britain (Spencer, 1972b: 87) including the Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Rum (Bland, in Whiteley, 1994), Anglesey, Cambridgeshire, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East SUffolk, Glamorgan, Leicestershire, Main Argull, Merionethshire, North Somerset, Nottinghamshire, Pembrokeshire, SOuth Lancashire, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey, West Gloucester and West Sussex (NBN Atlas, as Phytomyza syngenesiae, may include records of 'atricornis', horticola and/or syngenesiae).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Cosmopolitan. Widespread and common throughout Europe including Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 510), Balearic Is., Canary Is., Czech Republic, ? Faroe Is., French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Sardinia, Sicily, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also introduced to U.S.A., Australia and New Zealand (Spencer, 1976: 510).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Arctium pubens, Arnoseris minima, Artemisia vulgaris, Bidens pilosa, Bidens tripartita, Calendula officinalis, Callistephus chinensis, Carduus crispus, Centaurea calcitrapa, Centaurea jacea, Centaurea orientalis, Cichorium intybus, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium helenioides, Dahlia pinnata, Erigeron canadensis, Eupatorium cannabinum, Galinsoga parviflora, Galinsoga quadriradiata, Helianthus annuus, Inula crithmoides, Inula oculus-christi, Lactuca sativa, Leucanthemum vulgare, Leontodon autumnalis (= Scorzoneroides autumnalis), Leontodon hispidus, Pulicaria dysenterica, Senecio aquaticus, Senecio jacobaea, Senecio jacobaea, Senecio squalidus, Senecio viscosus, Senecio vulgaris, Serratula tinctoria, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Tanacetum vulgare, Taraxacum officinale, Tripleurospermum inodora

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: See Chromatomyia 'atricornis'.



External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas, may include records of 'atricornis', horticola and/or syngenesiae
NHM UK Checklist
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