The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard, 1926)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

South American leaf-miner

NOT BRITISH


Agromyza huidobrensis Blanchard, 1926. Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 1: 10
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard, 1926); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 382-384, and more
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard, 1926); Collins, 1996. Ann. appl. Biol. 128: PAGE.


Leaf-mine: An irregular serpentine mine tending to be restricted by veins within segments of the leaf and undulating between upper and lower surface.

Corridor; usually the mine begins with a short upper-surface stretch, then continues lower-surface, in the sponge parenchyma. Often the mine follows the midrib or a thick lateral vein for long distances. Most mines are found in the basal half of the leaf. Frass in thread fragments and strings. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Posterior spiracles of the larva with 6-9 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Puparium yellow to reddish-brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Video: Liriomyza huidobrensis (Bayer CropScience)

Comments: A highly polyphagous pest of ornamental and vegetable crops occasionally intercepted at UK points of entry. The species has been found under glass in England and Wales, but all populations have been and continue to be eradicated (Dom Collins, pers. comm.). Hosts cited here include 128 plant genera in 34 plant families.

Liriomyza huidobrensis is listed in the European Community Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC). As a non-native notifiable pest species, its occurence in the United Kingdom should be notified immediately to the Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (tel: +44 (0) 1904 462000, e-mail: info@fera.gsi.gov.uk ) However, in order to be certain of the identity, the male genitalia should be critically examined. Diagnostic protocols may be found at /protocols/liriomyza.pdf See also Collins (1996).

Parella and Bethke (1984) discuss the biology of L. huidobrensis on Chrysanthemum, Aster and pea and Prando and Cruz (1986) discuss aspects of its biology in the laboratory. Linden (1991) discusses the biological control of the leafminer on Dutch glasshouse tomatoes.

Joan Childs discovered this miner in Pisum sativa (pea) imported from Nicaragua, at a shop in Potton in Bedfordshire in January 2005 (British leafminers).

Chenopodium ambrosioides is treated as Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican-tea); Lycopersicon esculentum is treated as Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) and Picris echioides is treated as Helminthotheca echioides (Bristly Oxtongue) by Stace (2010).

Hosts: Liriomyza huidobrensis is recorded from Acanthaceae, Aizoaceae, Alstromeriaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Balsaminaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Goodeniaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Primulaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae and Violaceae.

Time of year - mines: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Found under glass in England and Wales, but all populations have been and continue to be eradicated (Dom Collins, pers. comm.); Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Added to the Irish list by O'Connor, Dunne and Hume (1990).

Joan Childs discovered this miner in Pisum sativa (pea) imported from Nicaragua, at a shop in Potton in Bedfordshire in January 2005 (British Leafminers Newsletter)

Distribution elsewhere: Worldwide. Europe including Austria, Belgium, Canary Is., Corsica, Crete, Cyclades Is., Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dodecanese Is., European Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Sicily, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Native to the Americas (Spencer, 1990). Recorded from Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Brazil, Goias, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Chile, Colombia, Easter Island, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, U.S.A. (California, Florida, Hawaii, Utah, Virginia), Canada (Ontario), Hawaii, Easter Island, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, China, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hebei, Shandong, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, India, Uttar Pradesh, Indonesia, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Israel, Japan, Korea Dem People's Republic, Lebanon, Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Comoros, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Reunion, Seychelles, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Australia and Guam (CABI Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, 2002, Map 568).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Alcea rosea, Allium cepa, Allium porrum, Allium sativum, Allium schoenoprasum, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Anaphalis margaritacea, Apium graveolens, Arctium minus, Atriplex patula, Bellis perennis, Beta vulgaris, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Brassica napus, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Calendula officinalis, Callistephus chinensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsicum annuum, Carthamus tinctorius, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium ambrosioides (= Dysphania ambrosioides), Cichorium endivia, Cicer arietinum, Cichorium intybus, Cirsium arvense, Citrullus lanatus, Coriandrum sativum, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Dahlia pinnata, Datura stramonium, Daucus carota, Dianthus barbatus, Dianthus caryophyllus, Galega officinalis, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga quadriradiata, Glycine max, Gypsophila elegans, Gypsophila paniculata, Lactuca sativa, Lathyrus latifolius, Lathyrus odoratus, Linum usitatissimum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Medicago sativa, Melilotus indicus, Nicotiana alata, Papaver rhoeas, Pastinaca sativa, Petroselinum sativum, Petunia axillaris x hybrida, Phaseolus coccineus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Picris echioides (= Helminthotheca echioides), Pisum sativum, Primula vulgaris, Raphanus sativus, Senecio jacobaea, Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Sonchus oleraceus, Spinacia oleracea, Tagetes erecta, Tagetes tenuifolia, Taraxacum officinale, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Tropaeolum majus, Vaccaria pyramidata, Vicia faba, Viola tricolor

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus crassinervis Erdös, 1958 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus poppoea Walker, 1848 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus ornatus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera patellana (Dalman, 1818) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Xestomnaster chrysochlorus (Walker, 1846) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa confinis Ruthe, 1859 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa hospita (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, 1935 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Bracon intercessor Nees, 1834 Braconidae: Braconinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pygmaeator (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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