larvae initially mining the leaves in a short, contorted gallery.
As the larva develops it leaves the mine to feed externally, creating
windows on the upperside of the leaves (UKMoths).
at the leaf upperside, egg shell iridescent. Small, hook-like corridor,
mostly in a vein axil. Frass in a very thick central line. The larva
soon leaves the mine through an untidy hole and subsequenty feeds
living freely on the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Mining larvae uniformly greenish yellow with a darker head and prothoracic
shield (Emmet, 1985a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
larva is illustrated in British
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation occurs in a ribbed white cocoon spun on debris. The
winter is passed in this stage. (UKMoths).
The cocoon is illustrated in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July and August (UKMoths;
of year - adults: May and early June (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: The moth occurs in wooded areas
throughout England and southern Scotland (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
- Central, East and Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Switzerland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species: To be added
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: