and case-bearer: The mines are large and obvious on the upper side of the leaf, betraying
the larva or larvae on the lower side (UKMoths).
are broad and flat - being very hairy from the texture of the leaf
after emergence the larva makes a full depth, quickly widening,
corridor, with frass as small grains in a broad central band. Finally
results in a blotch of 2 x 5 mm, from which the young case is cut.
The fully developed case is a hairy, greyish brown to silver grey
lobe case case of about 1 cm long, with a clearly laterally compressed
end; the mouth angle is about 90°. The case is difficult to
separate from that of C. ochripennella (Bladmineerders van Europa).
case is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Stachys officinalis is
treated as Betonica officinalis (Betony) by Stace (2010).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September to May (British
of year - adults: Flight period is from late June to August,
sometimes coming to light (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: The species is common in southern
England and Wales, but it becomes scarce and local in Chester and
from south York to the northern limit of England (UKMoths);
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Denbighshire (VC50),
East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Flintshire (VC51),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Isle of Wight (VC10), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), South Devon (VC3), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, North Aegean Is., Poland, Romania,
Russia - Central, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also East Palaearctic and
North Africa (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: