The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Lyonetia clerkella (Linnaeus, 1758)
[Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae]

Apple Leaf Miner


Phalaena clerkella Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat. (ed. 10): 542.
Lyonetia clerkella
(Linnaeus, 1758); Hübner, 1826. Verz. Bekannt.: 423.


Leaf-miner: A long, whitish smoothly-curved upper-surface mine with broken black frass (British leafminers).

Oviposition is by means of an ovipositor; what remains is a small scar: no egg shell is visible at the start of the mine. From here a long, sometimes very long, slender, full depth corridor winds throught the leaf, not steered by leaf margin or the leaf venation. The midrib is crossed effortless (see 'special'); the corridor frequently also crosses itself; the section of the leaf cut off then usally turns brown and dies off. Frass in a narrow central line. The larva vacates the mine prior to pupation through an exit in the upper epidermis. The vacated larval chamber is proportionally much longer than in the case of Stigmella mines (> 3 x longer than broad). Pupation takes place in a cocoon that hangs in a 'hammock' in a fold of the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Deeply segmented (British leafminers). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Pupation in a silken cocoon suspended from threads attached to food plant or other vegetation (British leafminers). The cocoon is also illustrated in UKMoths.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia of Life. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Comments: Mines on Prunus serotina are usually, and those on Prunus laurocarasus practically always abortive (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Possibly in part because of its abundance there are some references to xenophagy: Humulus lupulus and Salix caprea (Klimesch, 1957a; Huber, 1969a); Castanea sativa and Ribes (Hering, 1957a); Quercus (Robbins, 1991a); Rhamnus catharticus (Ellis, 2001a) (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betulaceae        
Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Pitkin & Plant
Lauraceae        
Laurus       Pitkin & Plant
Rosaceae        
Amelanchier       British leafminers
Cotoneaster affinis Purpleberry Cotoneaster   Pitkin & Plant
Cotoneaster salicifolius Willow-leaved Cotoneaster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Cotoneaster simonsii Himalayan Cotoneaster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Cotoneaster x watereri Waterer's Cotoneaster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Crataegus       Pitkin & Plant
Crataegus crus-galli Cockspurthorn   British leafminers
Cydonia oblonga Quince British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Malus       Pitkin & Plant
Malus       UKMoths
Mespilus germanica Medlar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Prunus       Pitkin & Plant
Prunus cerasifera Cherry Plum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry Laurel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Rosa       British leafminers
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Sorbus domestica Service-tree British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Sorbus hybrida Swedish Service-tree   Pitkin & Plant
Sorbus intermedia Swedish Whitebeam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Sorbus pseudofennica Arran Service-tree British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Sorbus subcuneata Somerset Whitebeam   Pitkin & Plant
Salicaceae        
Salix       Pitkin & Plant
Ulmaceae        
Ulmus       British leafminers
Ulmus pumila x japonica     British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Betulaceae        
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cannabaceae        
Humulus lupulus Hop British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Fagaceae        
Castanea sativa Sweet Chestnut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Grossulariaceae        
Ribes       Bladmineerders van Europa
Rhamnaceae        
Rhamnus cathartica Buckthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rosaceae        
Amelanchier lamarckii Juneberry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chaenomeles japonica Japanese quince British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cotoneaster glaucophyllus Glaucous Cotoneaster   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cotoneaster salicifolius Willow-leaved Cotoneaster British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Crataegus coccinea Pear-fruited Cockspurthorn   Bladmineerders van Europa
Crataegus crus-galli Cockspurthorn   Bladmineerders van Europa
Crataegus laevigata Midland Hawthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Crataegus mollis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cydonia oblonga Quince British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus baccata Siberian Crab   Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus fusca     Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus pumila Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Malus domestica

Malus pumila Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Malus sylvestris Crab Apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mespilus germanica Medlar British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus armeniaca Apricot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus avium Wild Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus cerasifera Cherry Plum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus cerasus Dwarf Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus domestica Wild Plum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus domestica subsp. insititia Bullace British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus glandulosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry Laurel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus mahaleb St Lucie Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus mume     Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus padus Bird Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus pensylvanica Pin Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus persica Peach British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus pseudocerasus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus serotina Rum Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus serrulata Japanese Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus subhirtella     Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus triloba     Bladmineerders van Europa
Pyracantha coccinea Firethorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pyrus communis Pear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sorbus aria Common Whitebeam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sorbus domestica Service-tree British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sorbus intermedia Swedish Whitebeam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Salicaceae        
Salix caprea Goat Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: The species has two or more broods, with the later ones overwintering and reappearing in the spring (UKMoths). May; July; September-October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: The adults fly at night and are attracted to light (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common throughout Britain (UKMoths) including Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire, Cumberland, Derbyshire, East Cornwall, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussex, East Sutherland, Easterness, Edinburgh, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Haddington, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Kincardineshire, Leicestershire, Linlithgow, Merionethshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, North Aberdeen, North Ebudes, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeen, South Devon, South Essex, South Hampshire, South Lancaster, South Wiltshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Cornwall, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Lancaster and West Norfolk (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, East and Northwest, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Amelanchier lamarckii, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Castanea sativa, Chaenomeles japonica, Cotoneaster affinis, Cotoneaster salicifolius, Cotoneaster simonsii, Cotoneaster x watereri, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus mollis, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus crus-galli, Cydonia oblonga, Humulus lupulus, Malus baccata, Malus pumila, Mespilus germanica, Malus sylvestris, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus cerasus, Prunus domestica, Prunus domestica subsp. insititia, Prunus laurocerasus, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus padus, Prunus pensylvanica, Prunus persica, Prunus serotina, Prunus serrulata, Prunus spinosa, Pyracantha coccinea, Pyrus communis, Rhamnus catharticus, Salix caprea, Sorbus aria, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus domestica, Sorbus hybrida, Sorbus intermedia, Sorbus pseudofennica, Sorbus subcuneata

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Achrysocharoides niveipes (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Asecodes delucchii (Boucek, 1971) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Asecodes erxias (Walker, 1848) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis budensis Erdös, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nitetis (Walker, 1939) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus lyonetiae (Ferrière, 1952) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Colpoclypeus florus (Walker 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Aprostocetus diversus Förster, 1848 Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Aprostocetus femoralis (Sundby, 1957) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Baryscapus nigroviolaceus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Apanteles corvinus Reinhard, 1880 Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Pholetesor viminetorum (Wesmael, 1837) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Dadegma holopygum (Thomson, 1887) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
Find using Google
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Find images using Google


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Last updated 05-May-2017  Brian Pitkin Top of page