mine is upper side, over veins. Silvery, with brown speckling, later
contracting to cause leaf to fold upwards. There may be several
mines on each leaf (British
silvery tentiform mine. For some time the mine remains quite flat,
and appears as a blotch mine. In the final stage the leaf is strongly
contracted, however. Not infrequently several mines in a leaf. Pupa
in a cocoon in a corner of the mine, frass heaped in the opposite
corner (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Cremaster has four hooked precesses - the outer pair being broader
than the inner ones (British
pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Being bivoltine, the adults are on the wing
in May and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A common moth throughout much
of the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48),
Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), Montgomeryshire (VC47), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Radnorshire (VC43),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38),
West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine.
Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: