Leaf-miner: The reddish frass is linear, later in arcs, finally dispersed (British
corridor, that widens only little, and winds freely through the
leaf, not influenced by the venation. In thick, sun-exposed leaves
the mine may be much shorter, especially in Cotoneaster, Malus and Pyrus. Frass brown, in arcs. (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is green (British
larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cocoon is illustrated in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - October (British
of year - adults: A single-generation species with adults flying
in June, and the larvae feeding in September and October (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common throughout much of the
British Isles (UKMoths)
including Ayrshire (VC74), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Cheviotland, Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Kincardineshire (VC91), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
South Northumberland (VC67), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
? Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East and
Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
communis, Pyrus elaeagrifolia, Sorbus
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: