Leaf-miner: Rather long full depth corridor that winds freely through the leaf
and may cross itself. In the end the corridor widens considerably.
Frass mostly in a narrow central line, but may also be deposited
along the sides or be missing. The larvae regular leave a mine to
restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. Neither larva nor
mine can be distinguished from that of related species (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The initial mine is a shallow upper surface mine, which then becomes full depth, with a more marked line of frass (British
Larva: The larvae of beetles have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles and lack abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of beetles have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Stachys officinalis is
treated as Betonica officinalis (Betony) by Stace (2010).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: Spring (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread including Anglesey,
Ayrshire, Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Berwickshire, Breconshire, Cheshire,
Cumberland, Derbyshire, Dorset, Dumfriesshire, County Durham, East Cornwall,
East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Flintshire, Glamorganshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire,
Isle of Man, Isle of Wight, Kirkcudbrightshire, Leicestershire, Merionethshire,
Mid-west Yorkshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, North Devon, North Essex, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, North-east Yorkshire, North-west Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, South Northumberland, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Pembrokeshire, Radnorshire
and Roxburgh (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Audisio in Fauna Europaea) and in Ireland (InvertebrateIreland Online).
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Sicily,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine (Audisio in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Atlas links to known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.