The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia nigra (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Cereal Leaf-miner


Phytomyza nigra Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 191
Phytomyza nigra Meigen, 1830; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 436
Chromatomyia cinereofrons Hardy, 1849a. Annls Mag. nat. Hist. (2)4(24): 390. [Synonymised by Griffiths, 1980]
Phytomyza nigra Meigen, 1830; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 82, 94
Phytomyza nigra Meigen, 1830; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 452-3, figs 792-3.
Chromatomyia nigra (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 354, 355, 356, 357, 377, 378 (fig. 1438), 379
Chromatomyia nigra (Meigen, 1830); Bland, 2000. Dipterists Digest 7: 11.
Phytomyza nigra Meigen, 1830; Winkler et al. 2009. Syst. ent. 34: 260-292.


Leaf-mine: Long, narrow, whitish mine. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 453); anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis.

Whitish, upper-surface, rather narrow corridor with comparatively large frass grains that are laying further apart than their diameter. Pupation within the mine. The anterior spiracles of the orange-brown puparium penetrate the epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The anterior spiracles are on relatively long stalks, each with up to 118 bulbs; posterior spiracles on short stalks, each with 10-13 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 453). The larva is described by Sasakawa (1961) and Dempewolf (2001: 203) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Chromatomyia nigra larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia nigra larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellowish-brown (Spencer, 1976: 453). The anterior spiracles of the orange-brown puparium penetrate the epidermis ( Bladmineerders van Europa.

Orchestes fagi larva,  dorsal
Chromatomyia nigra pupa, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Griffiths (1980) treats nigra as a single species with five forms. Spencer (1990) treats nigra as a superspecies. However, he states that forms cannot be associated with particular hosts.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Anthoxanthum odoratum Sweet Vernal-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 2002a: 101
Arrhenatherum       Robbins, 1991: 140
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH;
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 122
Avenula       Robbins, 1991: 141
Brachypodium sylvaticum False Brome British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 122
Calamagrostis canescens Purple Small-reed   Spencer, 1972b: 123
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123
Deschampsia       Robbins, 1991: 141
Deschampsia cespitosa Tufted Hair-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
Deschampsia flexuosa Wavy Hair-grass   Mines in BMNH
Elymus       Robbins, 1991: 141
Elymus repens Common Couch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
Festuca rubra Red Fescue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123
Holcus       Robbins, 1991: 141
Holcus       Spencer, 1972b: 82
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 2002a: 101
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Mines in BMNH
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Robbins, 1989: 25
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Bland, 2002a: 102
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 124
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 124
Phleum pratense Timothy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Poa       Robbins, 1991: 141
Poa       Spencer, 1972b: 82
Poa pratensis Smooth Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 25
Poa trivialis Rough Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 124
Secale cereale Rye   Spencer, 1972b: 124
Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat   Spencer, 1972b: 125

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Aegilops       Spencer, 1990: 356
Agrostis       Spencer, 1990: 354
Agrostis tenuis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Aira       Spencer, 1990: 354
Aira       Bladmineerders van Europa
Alopecurus       Spencer, 1990: 354
Alopecurus myosuroides Black-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Alopecurus pratensis Meadow Foxtail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ammophila       Spencer, 1990: 354
Ammophila arenaria Marram   Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthoxanthum       Spencer, 1990: 354
Anthoxanthum odoratum Sweet Vernal-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Apera       Spencer, 1990: 354
Apera spica-venti Loose Silky-bent   Bladmineerders van Europa
Arrhenatherum       Spencer, 1976: 453
Arrhenatherum       Spencer, 1990: 354
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Avena       Spencer, 1990: 354
Avena sativa Oat   Bladmineerders van Europa
Avenula       Spencer, 1990: 354
Brachypodium       Spencer, 1976: 453
Brachypodium       Spencer, 1990: 355
Brachypodium sylvaticum False Brome British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Briza       Spencer, 1990: 355
Briza media Quaking-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Bromus       Spencer, 1990: 355
Bromopsis ramosa Hairy-brome British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Calamagrostis       Spencer, 1976: 453
Calamagrostis       Spencer, 1990: 354
Calamagrostis canescens Purple Small-reed   Bladmineerders van Europa
Catapodium       Spencer, 1990: 355
Chaetopogon       Spencer, 1990: 354
Cynosurus       Spencer, 1990: 355
Cynosurus cristatus Crested Dog's-tail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Dactylis       Spencer, 1976: 453
Dactylis       Spencer, 1990: 355
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Deschampsia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Deschampsia       Spencer, 1990: 354
Desmazeria       Spencer, 1990: 355
Eleusine       Spencer, 1990: 356
Elymus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Elytrigia       Spencer, 1990: 356
Festuca       Spencer, 1976: 453
Festuca       Spencer, 1990: 355
Festuca altissima Wood Fescue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Festuca ovina Sheep's-fescue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Festuca rubra Red Fescue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Gaudinia       Spencer, 1990: 354
Gaudinia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Glyceria fluitans Floating Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Glyceria notata    

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Glyceria plicata

Hierochloe       Spencer, 1990: 354
Hierochloe       Bladmineerders van Europa
Holcus       Spencer, 1976: 453
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Dempewolf, 2001: 203
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum       Spencer, 1990: 356
Hordeum vulgare Six-rowed Barley   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lagurus ovatus Hair's-tail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 354
Lamarkia       Spencer, 1990: 355
Lepturus       Spencer, 1990: 357
Lolium       Spencer, 1990: 355
Lolium perenne Perennial Rye-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Melica       Spencer, 1990: 355
Milium       Spencer, 1976: 453
Milium       Spencer, 1990: 356
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Molinia       Spencer, 1990: 356
Molinia caerulea Purple Moor-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Nardus       Spencer, 1990: 355
Phalaris       Spencer, 1976: 453
Phalaris       Spencer, 1990: 355
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phleum       Spencer, 1990: 355
Phleum pratense Timothy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pholiurus       Spencer, 1990: 355
Poa       Spencer, 1976: 453
Poa       Spencer, 1990: 355
Poa annua Annual Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa trivialis Rough Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Polypogon       Spencer, 1990: 355
Secale       Spencer, 1976: 453
Secale       Spencer, 1990: 356
Secale cereale Rye   Bladmineerders van Europa
Sesleria albicans Blue Moor-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Setaria       Spencer, 1990: 357
Trisetum       Spencer, 1990: 355
Trisetum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Triticum       Spencer, 1976: 453
Triticum       Spencer, 1990: 356
Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat   Bladmineerders van Europa
Vulpia       Spencer, 1990: 356
Zea       Spencer, 1990: 357

Time of year - mines: June-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and common throughout British Isles including Scotland (Spencer, 1972b), Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991), Channel Is. (Martinez in Fauna Europaea); Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sutherland, Easterness, Elgin, Fife, Glamorgan, Isle of Wight, Monmouthshire, North Somerset, Nottinghamshire, North Somerset, North-east Yorkshire, Noth-west Yorkshire, Pembrokeshire, SOuth Lancaster, South Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, West Gloucester, West Kent, West Norfolk and Westmorland (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in Ireland (Spencer, 1972b).

Distribution elsewhere: Common in much of Europe, including Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 453), Madeira, the Baltic, Kamchatka (Siberia) (Spencer, 1990), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 453; Dempewolf, 2001: 203), Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Faroe Is., French mainland, Hungary, Iceland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Madeira, Poland, Slovakia, Swden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada, western U.S.A. and Japan (Spencer, 1976: 453).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Agrostis capillaris, Alopecurus pratensis, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Arrhenatherum elatius, Avena sativa, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Briza media, Calamagrostis canescens, Cynosurus cristatus, Dactylis glomerata, Deschampsia cespitosa, Deschampsia flexuosa, Elymus repens, Festuca altissima, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Glyceria fluitans, Glyceria notata, Glyceria maxima, Holcus lanatus, Holcus mollis, Hordeum vulgare, Lolium perenne, Milium effusum, Molinia caerulea, Phalaris arundinacea, Phleum pratense, Poa annua, Poa pratensis, Poa trivialis, Secale cereale, Sesleria albicans, Triticum aestivum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Hemiptarsenus unguicellus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Seladerma tarsale (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Epiclerus panyas (Walker, 1839) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus aphantus (Marshall, 1896) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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