The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Broad bean, bean and pea leaf-miner


Agromyza congesta Becker, 1903. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 2(3): 190
Liriomyza minima Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 233. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 241]
Liromyza parva Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 249. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 241.]
Liriomyza centaureana Hering 1936. Dt. ent. Z. (N.F.) 9(1-2): 75. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 241.]
Liriomyza nigripleura Rydén, 1956. Opusc. ent. 21: 195. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 241.]
Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 57, 58, 117, 118
Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903); Spencer, 1973a. Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Economic Importance. Series Ent. 9: 94
Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 241-2, figs 417-9.
Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 108, 111, 112, 113, 125, 127, 130 (figs 479-80), 131, 133, 139.


Leaf-mine: Corridor leaf-mine in leaves. An upper surface linear mine with frass in conspicuous greenish strips, largely alternating at each side of the channel (Spencer, 1976: 241).

Upper-surface, unbranched corridor, relatively broad from the start on, but only weakly widening subsequently. The fresh mine is bright green, but turns whitish, later brown, quickly. Frass in a wide green band in the centre of the corridor, with small black granules at either side. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Forms an upper surface mine, with the frass in a green strips (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is yellow (British leafminers) The larva is described by de Meijere (1925) and Sasakawa (1961, as trifolii) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellow; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 241). The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Liriomyza congesta puparium
Liriomyza congesta puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Fabaceae        
Anthyllis       Robbins, 1989: 22
Anthyllis vulneraria Kidney Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Astragalus glycyphyllos Wild Liquorice British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Colutea arborescens Bladder-senna   Mines in BMNH
Galega       Mines in BMNH
Galega officinalis Goat's Rue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Galega officinalis Goat's Rue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: App. 2
Galega officinalis Goat's Rue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Lathyrus       British leafminers
Lathyrus       Robbins, 1989: 22
Lathyrus       Spencer, 1972b: 47
Lathyrus japonicus Sea Pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lathyrus montanus Bitter-vetch   Spencer, 1972b: 117
Lathyrus odoratus Sweet Pea   Robbins, 1991: 47
Lathyrus pratensis Meadow Vetchling British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lathyrus pratensis Meadow Vetchling British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 47
Lathyrus pratensis Meadow Vetchling British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Lotus corniculatus Common Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robert Homan (pers. comm.)
Lotus corniculatus Common Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Lotus tenuis Narrow-leaved Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Langmaid, Sattler and Vaamonde, 2010
Medicago       Robbins, 1991: 44
Medicago       British leafminers
Medicago lupulina Black Medick British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Medicago lupulina Black Medick British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 22
Medicago sativa Lucerne British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Medicago sativa Lucerne British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Melilotus       Mines in BMNH
Melilotus       Robbins, 1991: 44
Melilotus officinalis Ribbed Melilot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Melilotus officinalis Ribbed Melilot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 117
Pisum       Robbins, 1983: 24
Pisum       British leafminers
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Mines in BMNH

? Pisum

sativum Garden Pea   Robbins, 1989: 22
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Spencer, 1972b: 117
Trifolium       Robbins, 1991: 44
Trifolium pratense Red Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Trifolium pratense Red Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 22
Trifolium repens White Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Trifolium repens White Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Vicia       British leafminers
Vicia       Spencer, 1972b: 118
Vicia benghalensis Purple Vetch   Mines in BMNH
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Vicia faba Broad Bean British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Vicia faba Broad Bean British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 47
Vicia faba Broad Bean British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118
Vicia sativa Common Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH

? Vicia

sativa Common Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 22
Vicia sepium Bush Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Vicia sepium Bush Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b; 118

Hosts elsewhere:

Fabaceae        
Anthyllis       Spencer, 1990: 112
Anthyllis vulneraria Kidney Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Astragalus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Astragalus cicer Chick-pea Milk-vetch   Bladmineerders van Europa
Astragalus danicus Purple Milk-vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Astragalus glycyphyllos Wild Liquorice British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Caragana       Spencer, 1990: 112
Caragana arborescens Siberian Pea-tree   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cicer       Spencer, 1990: 112
Colutea       Spencer, 1990: 111
Colutea arborescens Bladder-senna   Bladmineerders van Europa
Coronilla       Spencer, 1990: 112
Coronilla emeroides     Bladmineerders van Europa
Coronilla emerus Scorpion Senna   Bladmineerders van Europa
Coronilla varia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galega bicolor     Bladmineerders van Europa
Galega officinalis Goat's Rue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Glycine max Soya-bean   Bladmineerders van Europa
Glycyrrhiza       Spencer, 1990: 112
Glycyrrhiza       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hippocrepis       Spencer, 1990: 112
Hippocrepis comosa Horseshoe Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hymenocarpus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Lathyrus       Spencer, 1976: 241
Lathyrus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Lathyrus angulatus Angular Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus aphaca Yellow Vetchling British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus tingitanus Tangier Pea  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Lathyrus tingitanus

Lathyrus maritimus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus montanus Bitter-vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus niger Black Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus odoratus Sweet Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus pisiformis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus pratensis Meadow Vetchling British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus sylvestris Narrow-leaved Everlasting-pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lathyrus tuberosus Tuberous Pea British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lens       Spencer, 1990: 112
Lens culinaris Lentil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus corniculatus Common Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus ornithopodioides Southern Bird's-foot-trefoil   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lotus pedunculatus Greater Bird's-foot-trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Lotus uliginosus
Lupinus       Spencer, 1990: 113
Lupinus elegans     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lupinus luteus Annual Yellow-lupin   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lupinus reticulatus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lupinus succulentus Bigleaf lupine   Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago       Spencer, 1976: 241
Medicago       Spencer, 1990: 112
Medicago arabica Spotted Medick British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Medicago maculata

Medicago echinus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago lupulina Black Medick British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago minima Bur Medick   Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago sativa Lucerne British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago truncatula Strong-spined Medick  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Medicago tribuloides

Medicago sativa subsp. varia    

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Medicao x varia

Melilotus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Melilotus albus White Melilot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Melilotus officinalis Ribbed Melilot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Onobrychis       Spencer, 1990: 112
Onobrychis viciifolia Sainfoin British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ononis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ononis       Spencer, 1990: 112
Ornithopus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ornithopus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Oxytropis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Phaseolus       Spencer, 1990: 111
Phaseolus coccineus Runner Bean   Bladmineerders van Europa
Phaseolus vulgaris French Bean   Bladmineerders van Europa
Pisum       Spencer, 1976: 241
Pisum       Spencer, 1990: 112
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Scorpiurus       Spencer, 1990: 112
Securigera securidaca Hatchet Vetch   Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium       Spencer, 1990: 112
Trifolium arvense Hare's-foot Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium aureum Large Trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium campestre Hop Trefoil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium fragiferum Strawberry Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium hybridum Alsike Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium incarnatum Crimson Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium minus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium pratense Red Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium repens White Clover British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium stellatum Starry Clover   Bladmineerders van Europa
Trigonella       Spencer, 1990: 112
Vicia       Spencer, 1976: 241
Vicia       Spencer, 1990: 112
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia faba Broad Bean British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia grandiflora     Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia hirsuta Hairy Tare British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia sativa Common Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra Narrow-leaved Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Vicia angustifolia

Vicia sepium Bush Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Vicia sylvatica Wood Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-October. Several generations occur from early summer to late autumn.

Time of year - adults: May.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain (Spencer, 1972b: 58) including Warwickshire (Keresley) (Robbins, 1991: 44), Cambridgeshire (Stretham) (British leafminers) and East Perth (Glen Fender Meadows) (Bland, 1994c: 82); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Glamorganshire (VC41), Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Stafford and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Spencer, 1972b: 58).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and common throughout most of Europe including Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 241), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558), Albania, Austria, Canary Is., Corsica, Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea). (NBN Atlas).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Anthyllis vulneraria, Astragalus cicer, Astragalus danicus, Caragana arborescens, Colutea arborescens, Coronilla emerus, Galega officinalis, Glycine max, Hippocrepis comosa, Lathyrus aphaca, Lathyrus japonicus, Lathyrus montanus, Lathyrus niger, Lathyrus odoratus, Lathyrus pratensis, Lathyrus tingitanus, Lathyrus tuberosus, Lens culinaris, Lotus corniculatus, Lotus pedunculatus, Lupinus luteus, Medicago arabica, Medicago lupulina, Medicago minima, Medicago sativa, Medicago sativa subsp. varia (= Medicago sativa nothossp. varia), Medicago truncatula, Melilotus albus, Melilotus officinalis, Phaseolus coccineus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Trifolium arvense, Trifolium aureum, Trifolium campestre, Trifolium fragiferum, Trifolium hybridum, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Trifolium stellatum, Vicia benghalensis, Vicia cracca, Vicia faba, Vicia sativa, Vicia sativa subsp. nigra, Vicia sepium, Vicia sylvatica

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834) Pteromalidae: Asaphinae
alticoptera aenea (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera patellana (Dalman, 1818) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster hortensis Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus misellus (Marshall, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela melanocera (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Heterolexis balteata (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Townsilitus aemulus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Euphorinae
Apodesmia aemula (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius levis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius lugens Haliday, 1837 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pendulus Haliday, 1837 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pygmaeator (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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