The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Agromyza pulicaria Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 170
Agromyza pulicaria Meigen, 1830; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 171
Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1964a. Beitr. Ent. 14: 802
Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 11, 21 (fig. 34), 25, 113, 114, 115
Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 75, figs 96-7.
Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 259, 260 (fig. 975), 261.


Leaf-mine: A whitish blotch-mine along the mid-rib, with lateral offshoots into the leaf blade. Pupation at base of leaf in petiole (Spencer, 1972b: 25).

Broad corridor overlying the midrib, with short excursion into the blade, mainly in its basal part. Frass concentrated in the basal part of the mine, corridors almost free from frass. Pupation in the mine, also in the basal part (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Ophiomyia pulicaria on Taraxacum officinale. Image: Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders van Europa)
Mine of Ophiomyia pulicaria on Taraxacum officinale
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1928) and Sasakawa (1961). Posterior spiracles on short stalks, each with an ellipse of 11-14 bulbs (Spencer, 1972b: 25).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Pale, whitish-yellow (Spencer, 1972: 25).

Comments: Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Crepis biennis Rough Hawks-beard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113
Hieracium       Robbins, 1991: 124
Hypochaeris       Spencer, 1972b: 25
Hypochaeris radicata Cat's-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113
Leontodon autumnalis Autumn Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Picris hieracioides Hawkweed Oxtongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114
Pilosella officinarum Mouse-ear-hawkweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113 (as Hieracium pilosella)
Sonchus       Robbins, 1991: 124
Sonchus       Spencer, 1972b: 25
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 20
Taraxacum       Robbins, 1991: 124
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1972b: 25
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Andryala       Spencer, 1990: 259
Aposeris foetida     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chondrilla       Spencer, 1990: 259
Chondrilla juncea Skeletonweed   Bladmineerders van Europa
Crepis       Spencer, 1976: 74
Crepis       Spencer, 1990: 259
Crepis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium       Spencer, 1976: 74
Hieracium       Spencer, 1990: 259
Hieracium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hypochaeris       Spencer, 1976: 74
Hypochaeris       Spencer, 1990: 259
Hypochaeris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lapsana       Spencer, 1990: 259
Lactuca       Bladmineerders van Europa
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon       Spencer, 1990: 259
Leontodon       Spencer, 1976: 74
Leontodon       Bladmineerders van Europa
Mycelis muralis Wall Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Picris       Spencer, 1976: 74
Picris       Spencer, 1990: 259
Picris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Reichardia       Spencer, 1990: 259
Sonchus       Spencer, 1976: 74
Sonchus       Spencer, 1990: 259
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1990: 259
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May, July.

Time of year - adults: There are at least two generations per year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and common in Britain, including Lancaster (Formby) (Spencer, 1972b: 25) and Warwickshire (Robbins, 1991: 124); Cambridgeshire, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, North Somerset, South-west Yorkshire and West Gloucestershire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway (Spencer, 1976: 75), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 75), Austria, Canary Is., Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending east to Siberia (Spencer, 1976: 75).

Also recorded from Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 93; Spencer, 1976: 75).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Crepis biennis, Hypochaeris radicata, Lapsana communis, Leontodon autumnalis (= Scorzoneroides autumnalis), Mycelis muralis, Picris hieracioides, Pilosella officinarum, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Taraxacum officinale

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus leptogaster (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Find images using Google


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