The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Pseudonapomyza atra (Meigen, 1830)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza atra Meigen, 1830. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europaischen zweiflugeligen Insekten. 6: 191
Pseudonapomyza atra (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 66 (figs 221-3), 68, 69, 122, 124
Pseudonapomyza atra (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 328, figs 591-6.
Pseudonapomyza atra (Meigen, 1830); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 354, 355, 356, 375, 376 (figs 1419-20).


Leaf-mine: A short narrow mine, generally near apex of leaf. Larva with each segment bearing a row of characteristic papilli which are retained in the puparium (Spencer, 1976: 328). Pupation internal.

Transparent, short and narrow mine not far from the leaf tip. Frass in two rows of grains. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Anterior spiracles each with 7-8 bulbs, posterior spiracles each with 7 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Posterior spiracles each with 7 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 328).

Comments: Pseudonapomyza europaea is treated as a junior synonym of Pseudonapomyza atra in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Festuca gigantea is treated as Schedonorus gigantea (Giant Fescue) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Avena sativa Oat   Mines in BMNH
Avena sativa Oat   Spencer, 1972b: 122
Dactylis       Robbins, 1991: 141
Holcus       Robbins, 1991: 141
Hordeum vulgare Six-rowed Barley   Mines in BMNH
Lolium perenne Perennial Rye-grass   Spencer, 1972b: 124
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass   Spencer, 1972b: 124
Phragmites australis Common Reed   Pitkin & Plant
Poa       Spencer, 1972b: 124
Secale       Spencer, 1972b: 69
Secale cereale Rye   Spencer, 1972b: 124

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Agrostis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Apera       Spencer, 1976: 328
Apera       Spencer, 1990: 354
Apera spica-venti Loose Silky-bent   Bladmineerders van Europa
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Avena       Spencer, 1976: 328
Avena       Spencer, 1990: 354
Avena sativa Oat   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot   Bladmineerders van Europa
Elymus repens Common Couch   Bladmineerders van Europa
Festuca gigantea Giant Fescue   Bladmineerders van Europa
Holcus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum       Spencer, 1976: 328
Hordeum       Spencer, 1990: 356
Hordeum hexastichum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum sativum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lolium       Spencer, 1976: 328
Lolium       Spencer, 1990: 355
Lolium perenne Perennial Rye-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Phalaris       Spencer, 1976: 328
Phalaris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Phalaris       Spencer, 1990: 355
Poa       Spencer, 1976: 328
Poa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa       Spencer, 1990: 355
Secale       Spencer, 1976: 328
Secale       Spencer, 1990: 356
Secale cereale Rye   Bladmineerders van Europa
Trisetum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Triticum       Spencer, 1976: 328
Triticum       Spencer, 1990: 356
Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat   Bladmineerders van Europa
Zea mays Maize   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May-June, August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread, but local, in south of Britain including London (Wood Green), Kent (Otford and Wrotham), Middlesex (Scratch Wood), Surrey (Box Hill), Buckinghamshire (Ivinghoe) (Spencer, 1972b: 69), Warwickshire (Binley) (Robbins, 1991: 141); Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Cumberland, Glamorgan, Monmouthshire, North Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Surrey andf West Gloucestershire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Germany, Hungary, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Yugoslavia (Spencer, 1976: 328), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Meijere, 1924; de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Azores, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Madeira, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 209).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Apera spica-venti, Arrhenatherum elatius, Avena sativa, Dactylis glomerata, Elymus repens, Festuca gigantea (= Schedonorus gigantea), Hordeum vulgare, Lolium perenne, Phalaris arundinacea, Phragmites australis, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis polyzo (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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