The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Trypeta immaculata (Macquart, 1835)
[Diptera: Tephritidae]


Tephritis immaculata Macquart, 1835. Hist. nat. Ins., Dipt. 2: 467
Trypeta hamifera Loew, 1846. Linn. ent. 1: 496
Trypeta immaculata (Macquart, 1835); White, 1988: 63. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5a): 24, 40.


Leaf-mine: The mine begins with a very narrow full depth corridor, that ends upon the midrib. Subsequently a broad corridor, or rather an elongated blotch, is made overlying the midrib; from here broad, lobe-like extensions are made into the blade. Frass in discrete grains. Secondary feeding lines conspicuous. The larva is capable of leaving the mine and restarting in a new leaf, in which case the association with the midrib may be lost. Pupation after vacation of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Trypeta immaculata on Taraxacum
Mine of Trypeta immaculata on Taraxacum
Image: Rob Edmunds (British leafminers)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellow; anterior spiracle openings arranged in large arcs, not elevated on a fan-like structure; posterior spiracles each with a central opening larger and more raised than the lateral openings (White, 1988: 63).

Comments: Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Crepis paludosa Marsh Hawks-beard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland and Rotheray, 1994
Hieracium       Robbins, 1991: 124

Taraxacum

      Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Taraxacum       White, 1988: 63

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Aposeris       Hering, 1957
Aposeris foetida     Bladmineerders van Europa
Crepis       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Crepis       Hering, 1957
Crepis       White, 1988: 63
Crepis paludosa Marsh Hawks-beard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Hieracium       Hering, 1957
Hieracium       White, 1988: 63
Hieracium laevigatum Tongue-leaved Hawkweed   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium murorum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium sabaudum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hieracium sylvaticum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hypochaeris       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Hypochaeris       Bladmineerders van Europa
Hypochaeris       Hering, 1957
Hypochaeris       White, 1988: 63
Lapsana       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Lapsana       Hering, 1957
Lapsana       White, 1988: 63
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Leontodon       Hering, 1957
Leontodon       White, 1988: 63
Leontodon autumnalis Autumn Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon hispidus Rough Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mycelis       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Mycelis       Hering, 1957
Mycelis       White, 1988: 63
Mycelis muralis Wall Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prenanthes       Hering, 1957
Prenanthes purpurea Purple Lettuce   Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio arvensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
? Senecio vulgaris Groundsel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 63
Sonchus       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Sonchus       Hering, 1957
Sonchus       White, 1988: 63
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Taraxacum       Hering, 1957
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: September-October.

Time of year - adults: May-June, the following year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: North-east Scotland (White, 1988: 63), Perth (Craighall Gorge, Blairgowrie; Romadie Wood, Bridge of Cally, Den of Riechip, Butterstone) (Bland and Rotheray, 1994), Warwickshire (Alvecote) (Robbins, 1991); Caernarvonshire, East Ross, East Sutherland, Kirkubridghtshire, Mid-east Yorkshire, Mid Perth and North-east Yorkshire, South-east Yorkshire, West Lancaster and West Ross (NBN Atlas).

Also throughout Ireland (White, 1988: 63).

Distribution elsewhere: Europe, except Mediterranean area (White, 1988: 63), including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa) and Belgium (Leclercq and de Bruyn, 1991). See also Pape & Beuk. See also Fauna Europaea.

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Cichorium intybus, Crepis paludosa, Hieracium laevigatum, Hieracium murorum, Hieracium sabaudum, Lapsana communis, Leontodon autumnalis (= Scorzoneroides autumnalis), Mycelis muralis, Prenanthes purpurea, ? Senecio vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Eurytenes abnormis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Eurytenes geniculatus (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius cingulatus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
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Find images using Google


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