The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia fuscula (Zetterstedt, 1838)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza fuscula Zetterstedt, 1838. Insecta Lapp. : 794
Phytomyza fuscula Zetterstedt, 1838; Zetterstedt, 1848. Diptera Scandinaviae. 7: 2831
Phytomyza avenae de Meijere, 1926. Tijdschr. Ent. 69: 251
Phytomyza fuscula Zetterstedt, 1838; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 407
Phytomyza fuscula Zetterstedt, 1838; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 421-23, figs 733-6
Chromatomyia fuscula (Zetterstedt, 1838); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 354, 355, 356, 377, 378 (fig. 1436), 379
Chromatomyia fuscula (Zetterstedt, 1838); Bland, 2002. Dipterists Digest 7(2): 101 - 102.
Phytomyza fuscula Zetterstedt, 1838; Winkler et al. 2009. Syst. ent. 34: 260-292.


Leaf-mine: Narrow whitish mine, with frass in distinct black lumps. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 422).

Whitish, upper-surface, descending corridor, about halfway up the blade. Frass in distinct black grains that are lying further apart than their diameter. Pupation in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue.

Anterior spiracles with 18-20, posterior spiracles with 8 bulbs; both are fist-shaped. (The posterior spiracles isn't dagger-shaped, like in Ch. milii).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Pale yellowish with darker markings; posterior spiracles each with 4-6, rarely 10 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 422).

The orange-brown puparium can easily be discriminated from that of Ch. nigra because the ventral surface has a broad dark length zone (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Comments: The life-cycle is described by Andersen (1991).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Arrhenatherum       Pitkin & Plant
Holcus       Pitkin & Plant
Milium       Pitkin & Plant
Phleum       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Alopecurus pratensis Meadow Foxtail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Alopecurus pratensis Meadow Foxtail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 354
Anthoxanthum odoratum Sweet Vernal-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 2002b: 101
Arrhenatherum       Spencer, 1990: 354
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 422
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Avena sativa Oat   Spencer, 1976: 422
Avena sativa Oat   Bladmineerders van Europa
Avenula       Spencer, 1990: 354
Beckmannia       Spencer, 1990: 354
Bromus       Spencer, 1990: 355
Bromus erectus Upright Brome   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cinna       Spencer, 1990: 354
Dactylis       Spencer, 1990: 355
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Deschampsia       Spencer, 1990: 354
Festuca       Bladmineerders van Europa
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum       Spencer, 1990: 356
Hordeum vulgare Six-rowed Barley   Spencer, 1976: 422
Hordeum vulgare Six-rowed Barley   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lolium       Spencer, 1990: 355
Melica       Spencer, 1990: 355
Milium       Spencer, 1990: 356
Phalaris       Spencer, 1990: 355
Phleum       Spencer, 1990: 355
Phleum pratense Timothy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 422
Phleum pratense Timothy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa       Spencer, 1990: 355
Poa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Secale       Spencer, 1990: 356
Secale cereale Rye   Spencer, 1976: 422
Secale cereale Rye   Bladmineerders van Europa
Sesleria       Spencer, 1990: 356
Trisetum       Spencer, 1990: 355
Triticum       Spencer, 1990: 356
Triticum aestivum Bread Wheat   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: April-September (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Perth (Kinnoul Hill and Fealar Gorge); Angus (Glen Cova, The Scorrie); Fife (Kinkell Braes) (Bland, 2002). (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 422), Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Poland, Slovakia, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1976: 422).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Alopecurus pratensis, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Arrhenatherum elatius, Avena sativa, Bromus erectus, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Hordeum vulgare, Phleum pratense, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pallipes (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis polyzo (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis aratus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus ornatus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus unguicellus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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