The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza flaveola (Fallén, 1823)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Agromyza flaveola Fallén, 1823a. Agromyzides Sveciae : 6
Agromyza flaveola Fallén, 1823a; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 219
Liriomyza flaveola (Fallén, 1823a); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 48, 49 (figs 153B and 155), 50, 52, 123, 124
Liriomyza flaveola (Fallén, 1823a); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 246-8, figs 428-31.
Liriomyza flaveola (Fallén, 1823a); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 354, 355, 356, 372 (fig. 1402), 373.


Leaf-mine: A narrow whitish linear mine, running down the leaf from the apex, with frass in two rows of separate grains. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 246).

Narrow corridor from start to end, whitish, uppper- or lower-surface, genarally running downwards. Mine often along the leaf margin. Frass in distict grains of regular size, alternating along the sides of the corridor. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine of Liriomyza flaveola on Festuca gigantea. Image: Willis Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders van Europa)
Mine of Liriomyza flaveola on Festuca gigantea
Image: © Willis Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Orange-yellow to reddish; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs, one conspicuously elongated (Spencer, 1976: 246).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Poaceae        
Bromus       Spencer, 1972b: 123
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 123
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Mines in BMNH
Holcus mollis Creeping Soft-grass   Spencer, 1972b: 124
Poa       Spencer, 1972b: 124

Hosts elsewhere:

Poaceae        
Agrostis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Aira       Bladmineerders van Europa
Alopecurus myosuroides Black-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthoxanthum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Apera barbata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Apera pubescens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Apera spica-venti Loose Silky-bent   Bladmineerders van Europa
Arrhenatherum elatius False Oat-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Avena sativa Oat   Bladmineerders van Europa
Avenula       Bladmineerders van Europa
Briza maxima Greater Quaking-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Briza media Quaking-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Bromus       Spencer, 1976: 245
Bromus       Spencer, 1990: 355
Bromus hordaceus Soft Brome British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as mollis
Calamagrostis canescens Purple Small-reed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Dactylis       Spencer, 1976: 245
Dactylis       Spencer, 1990: 355
Dactylis glomerata Cock's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Deschampsia flexuosa Wavy Hair-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Elymus repens Common Couch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Gaudinia       Bladmineerders van Europa
Holcus       Spencer, 1976: 245
Holcus       Spencer, 1990: 354
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire-fog British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hordeum vulgare Six-rowed Barley   Bladmineerders van Europa
Lolium perenne Perennial Rye-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Milium       Spencer, 1990: 356
Milium effusum Wood Millet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Phleum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa       Spencer, 1976: 245
Poa       Spencer, 1990: 355
Poa annua Annual Meadow-grass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa nemoralis Wood Meadow-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa
Poa palustris Swamp Meadow-grass   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-August, October.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common and widespread throughout Britain, including Aberdeen, Banffshire, Inverness, Elgin (Spencer, 1972b: 52), Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire, Cumberland, Denbishire, Derbyshire, Dumfrieshire, East Kent, East Norfolk. East Ross, Elgin, Fife, Glamorgan, Merionethshire, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, North Devon, North Hampshire, North Somerset, North-east Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Pembrokeshire, Shropshire, South Lancashire, South Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Ross, West Sussex, Westmorland and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas) and the Channel Is. (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Spencer, 1972b: 52).

Distribution elsewhere: Common throughout much of Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 245), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Meijere, 1924; de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 558), Belarus, Canary Is., Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Monaco, Poland, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Alopecurus myosuroides, Apera spica-venti, Arrhenatherum elatius, Avena sativa, Briza maxima, Briza media, Bromus hordeaceus, Calamagrostis canescens, Dactylis glomerata, Deschampsia flexuosa, Elymus repens, Holcus lanatus, Holcus mollis, Hordeum vulgare, Lolium perenne, Milium effusum, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa annua, Poa nemoralis, Poa palustris

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chorebus aphantus (Marshall, 1896) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa adducta (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Heterolexis balteata (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Eurytenes abnormis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius levis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma rex (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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Last updated 21-May-2017 Brian Pitkin Top of page