The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Melanagromyza beckeri Hendel, 1923b. Konowia 2: 145
Melanagromyza euphorbiae Hendel, 1923b. Konowia 2: 145. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1966: 48]
Melanagromyza beckeri Hendel, 1923b; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 161
Melanagromyza goniaea Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 165. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1966: 48]
Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923b); Spencer, 1964a. Beitr. Ent. 14: 782
Melanagromyza goniaea Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1966. Beitr. Ent. 16: 48
Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923b); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 20, 21, 25, 114, 115
Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923b); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 60-61, figs 58-9
Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923b); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 259, 260 (fig. 974), 261.


Leaf-mine: A white mine along mid-rib, with offshoots into leaf blade. Pupation internal at base of mid-rib.

In Asteraceae the larva mostly lives as a borer in the midrib of the leaves. From there short corridors are made into the blade. Also a corridor can be made overlying the midrib. In Euphorbia a small mine is made in the bracts of the inflorescence. The final mine strongly resembles the one of Liriomyza strigata, but the branches are vritually free from frass; this is acccumulated in the resting place of the larva, in the base of the midrib. There also pupation takes place (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Forms a mine along the midrib and has feeding spurs into the leaf. Pupation is in the mine at the base of the midrib (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1943) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Antererior spiracles each with 7 bulbs; posterior spiracles each with 10-12 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Whitish; posterior spiracles on a short stalk, each with 10-12 bulbs. The puparium is illustrated in British leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.

Ophiomyia beckeri puparium,  dorsal
Ophiomyia beckeri puparium, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Leontodon autumnalis is treated as Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Autumn Hawkbit) and Picris echioides is treated as Helminthotheca echioides (Bristly Oxtongue) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Cicerbita       Robbins, 1991: 123
Leontodon       British leafminers
Leontodon       Robbins, 1991: 123
Leontodon       Spencer, 1972b: 114
Sonchus       Robbins, 1991: 123
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 20
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 115

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Centaurea boissieri subsp. paui     Bladmineerders van Europa
Coreopsis biennis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Crepis       Spencer, 1976: 60
Crepis       Spencer, 1990: 259
Crepis capillaris Smooth Hawk's-beard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Crepis virens

Helminthotheca echioides Bristly Oxtongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Picris
Hypochaeris       Spencer, 1976: 60
Hypochaeris radicata Cat's-ear British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca serriola Prickly Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lactuca tenerrima     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Launaea       Spencer, 1990: 259
Launaea       Bladmineerders van Europa
Leontodon       Spencer, 1976: 60
Leontodon       Spencer, 1990: 259
Leontodon autumnalis Autumn Hawkbit British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mycelis muralis Wall Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Mycelis muralis Wall Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Lactuca muralis

Picris       Spencer, 1976: 60
Reichardia picroides Common brighteyes   Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus       Spencer, 1976: 60
Sonchus       Spencer, 1990: 259
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1976: 60
Taraxacum       Spencer, 1990: 259
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Urospermum picroides    

Bladmineerders van Europa

Brassicaceae        
Lepidium draba Hoary Cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sisymbrium irio London-rocket   Bladmineerders van Europa
Euphorbiaceae        
Euphorbia helioscopia Sun Spurge British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Euphorbia serrata     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August.

Time of year - adults: May.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in south but not common. Kent (Sandwich), Essex (Thames Marshes), Oxfordshire (Bagley Wood), Dorest (Portland Studland), Somerset (Berrow), Glamorgan (Portcawl) (Spencer, 1972b: 60); Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 123); Cambridgeshire and Glamorgan (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in Ireland (Spencer, 1972b: 60).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland (Spencer, 1976: 60), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Scheirs, de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1995), Austria, Balearic Is., Canary Is., Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Madeira, Poland, Sicily, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in South Africa and India (Spencer, 1976: 60).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Crepis capillaris, Euphorbia helioscopia, Hypochaeris radicata, Lactuca serriola, Lapsana communis, Leontodon autumnalis (= Scorzoneroides autumnalis), Lepidium draba, Mycelis muralis, Picris echioides (= Helminthotheca echioides), Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Sisymbrium irio, Taraxacum officinale, Urospermum picroides

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Epiclerus panyas (Walker, 1839) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus leptogaster (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google


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