The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758)
[Diptera: Tephritidae]


Musca heraclei Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat. (Ed. 10) 1: 600.
Musca heraclei Linnaeus, 1758; White and Seymour, 1989. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 46: 252-254.
Musca heraclei Linnaeus, 1758; Thompson, 1990. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 47: 132-3.
Musca heraclei Linnaeus, 1758; White, 1990. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 47: 133-4.
Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758); White, 1988: 60. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5a): 24, 37.


Leaf-mine: A large blotch, yellow or brown, preceded by a short corridor that in the end mostly is completely overrun. Generally several larvae share a mine. Especially in fresh mines the green primary and secondary feeding lines are well visible. Pupation outside the mine.

Hering (1957a) warns that the mines cannot be separated from those of the rare Cryptaciura rotundiventris (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine is deep and leads to a blotch, which is usually coloured yellow or brown (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Mandibles with two teeth (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Eulaia heraclei larva,
Euleia heraclei larva, cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellow; anterior spiracle openings arranged in large arcs, not elevated on a fan-like structure; posterior spiracles each with a central opening of similar size to the lateral openings (White, 1988: 60). The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Euleia heraclei puparia
Euleia heraclei pupariria
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Peucedanum ostruthium is treated as Imperatoria ostruthium (Masterwort) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Ammi        
Angelica       Robbins, 1991: 66
Angelica       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Angelica       British leafminers
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Apium       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Apium graveolens var. dulce Celery   Robbins, 1991: 64
Apium graveolens var. dulce Celery   British leafminers
Apium graveolens Wild Celery British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Apium graveolens Wild Celery British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Apium nodiflorum Fool's-water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Apium nodiflorum Fool's-water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 64
Apium nodiflorum Fool's-water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Conium maculatum Hemlock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Conium maculatum Hemlock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Heracleum       Robbins, 1991: 67
Heracleum       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Heracleum       British leafminers
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Levisticum       Robbins, 1991: 65
Levisticum       British leafminers
Levisticum officinale Lovage   Robbins, 1989
Oenanthe crocata Hemlock Water-dropwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Pastinaca       Robbins, 1991: 66
Pastinaca       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Pastinaca       British leafminers
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Petroselinum       Pitkin & Plant
Petroselinum crispum Garden Parsley   British leafminers
Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Smyrnium       Uffen in Chandler, 1978: 222
Smyrnium olusatrum Alexanders British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Smyrnium olusatrum Alexanders British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Asteraceae        
? Cirsium       Pitkin & Plant
? Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium       Hering, 1957
Aegopodium podagraria Ground-elder British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ammi       Bladmineerders van Europa
Ammi       Hering, 1957
Ammi       White, 1988: 60
Angelica       Hering, 1957
Angelica archangelica Garden Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Angelica archangelica Garden Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Angelica ursina     Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthriscus       Hering, 1957
? Anthriscus cerefolium Garden Chervil   White, 1988: 60
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Apium       Hering, 1957
Apium graveolens Wild Celery British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Apium nodiflorum Fool's-water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Berula erecta Lesser Water-parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Berula erecta Lesser Water-parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Bupleurum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bupleurum       Hering, 1957
Bupleurum       White, 1988: 60
Cicuta       Hering, 1957
Cicuta       White, 1988: 60
Cicuta virosa Cowbane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Cicuta virosa Cowbane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Conioselinum       Hering, 1957
Conium       Hering, 1957
Conium maculatum Hemlock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Coriandrum       Hering, 1957
Coriandrum       White, 1988: 60
Coriandrum sativum Coriander British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Daucus carota Wild Carrot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Eryngium       Hering, 1957
Eryngium campestre Field Eryngo British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Falcaria       Hering, 1957
Falcaria       White, 1988: 60
? Falcaria vulgaris Longleaf   White, 1988: 60
Falcaria vulgaris Longleaf   Bladmineerders van Europa
Heracleum       Hering, 1957
Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
? Heracleum persicum     White, 1988: 60
Heracleum pubescens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. transsylvanicum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. verticillatum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Laserpitium       Hering, 1957
Laserpitium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Levisticum       Hering, 1957
Levisticum officinale Lovage   Bladmineerders van Europa
Levisticum officinale Lovage   White, 1988: 60
Ligusticum       Hering, 1957
Ligusticum mutellina     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ligusticum scoticum Scots Lovage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ligusticum scoticum Scots Lovage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Molospermum cicutarium     Bladmineerders van Europa
Oenanthe       Bladmineerders van Europa
Oenanthe       Hering, 1957
Oenanthe       White, 1988: 60
Pastinaca       Hering, 1957
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Petroselinum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Petroselinum       Hering, 1957
Petroselinum crispum Garden Parsley   White, 1988: 60
Peucedanum crispum Garden Parsley   Bladmineerders van Europa
Peucedanum       Hering, 1957
Peucedanum ostruthium Masterwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Peucedanum schotti     Bladmineerders van Europa
Pimpinella       Hering, 1957
Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Pimpinella major Greater Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Pleurospermum       Hering, 1957
Pleurospermum       White, 1988: 60
Pleurospermum austriacum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Seseli       Hering, 1957
Seseli       White, 1988: 60
Seseli libanotis Moon Carrot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sium       Hering, 1957
Sium latifolium Greater water-parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Sium latifolium ? Greater water-parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60
Sium sisarum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Smyrnium       Hering, 1957
Smyrnium olusatrum Alexanders British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Smyrnium perfoliatum     White, 1988: 60
Thapsia villosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
? Torilis       White, 1988: 60
Torilis arvensis subsp. neglecta     Bladmineerders van Europa
Asteraceae        
? Arctium lappa ? Greater Burdock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. White, 1988: 60

Time of year - mines: April, June-August, October-November.

Time of year - adults: May-August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Throughout the British Isles (White, 1988) including the Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Warwickshire (Coventry and Ufton) (Robbins, 1991: 65 and 67), Norfolk (Wells-next-the-sea) (British leafminers), the Channel Is. (Merz and Korneyev in Fauna Europaea); Anglesey, Ayrshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Denbighsire, Dorset, Dumfrieshire, East Cornwall, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Ross, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Easterness, Edinburgh, Flintshire, Glamorgan, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Main Argyll, Middlesex, Monmouthshire, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, North-east Yorkshire, Orkney, Oxfordshire, Pembrokeshire, Shropshire, South Devon, South Hampshire, South Lancaster, South Somerset, SOuth-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Norfolk and West Suffolk (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Merz and Korneyev in Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Most of the Palaearctic region, as far east as Afghanistan (White, 198) including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Leclercq and de Bruyn, 1991) Austria, Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Malta, North Aegean Is., Norwegian mainland, Poland, Republic of Moldova, Russia - Central, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine (Merz and Korneyev in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica sylvestris, Angelica archangelica, Anthriscus cerefolium, Anthriscus sylvestris, Apium graveolens, Apium graveolens var. dulce, Apium nodiflorum, ? Arctium lappa, Berula erecta, Cicuta virosa, Conium maculatum, Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Eryngium campestre, Falcaria vulgaris, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum persicum, Heracleum sphondylium, Levisticum officinale, Ligusticum scoticum, Pastinaca sativa, Petroselinum crispum, Peucedanum ostruthium (= Imperatoria ostruthium), Pimpinella major, Pimpinella saxifraga, Seseli libanotis, Sium latifolium, Smyrnium olusatrum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis illustris Graham, 1963 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Aprostocetus boreus (Delucchi, 1954) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Halticoptera flavicornis (Spinola, 1808) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Aspilota fuscicornis (Haliday, 1838) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dapsilarthra apii (Curtis, 1826) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Triaspis flavipalpis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Brachistinae
Apodesmia ocellata Wesmael 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia rufipes (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Apodesmia saevula (Fischer, 1958) Braconidae: Opiinae
Eurytenes abnormis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius cingulatus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opiognathus pactus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Medophron crassicornis (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Phygadeuon exiguus Gravenhorst, 1829 Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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