The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

N.B. Links to the latest version of 'Leafminers and plant galls of Europe' are being edited

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CHANGES - 2011
 
2017 : 2016 : 2015 : 2014 : 2013: 2012 : 2011 : 2010 : 2009 : 2008 : 2007
 

31st December 2011 - Note distinguishing Diptera and non-Diptera in Keys updated

The Note at the beginning of every Key has been updated to read:-

'All mining Diptera larvae are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. Larva may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, or a blotch mine, but never in a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video).

Larvae of mining Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera usually have six thoracic legs (although they may be reduced or absent), a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding). Larvae of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera usually also have abdominal legs (see examples). Larva may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, a blotch mine, a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Frass, if present, never in two rows. Unless feeding externally from within a case the larva usually vacates the mine by chewing an exit hole.'

11th December 2011 - Phytomyza species on Antennaria added

Phytomyza antennaria Bland, 2011 and Phytomyza heckfordi Bland, 2011 have been added.

11th December 2011 - Key component numbering format updated

The way in which key components are numbered has been updated and standardised throughout

e.g

1>

->

->

has become

1a>

1b>

1c>

2nd December 2011 - Diptera Larval galleries created

New galleries of larval images were created for 156 species of Diptera using images from Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa.

12th November 2011 - Gallery image links checked and updated

Gallery image links for all species were checked and updated as necessary. Previously links to British leafminers for a species were linked to the same page for all images in each gallery. The links now link to the individual page in British leafminers on which the image appears.

2nd November 2011 - Larval and pupal/puparial links to Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa checked and updated

Larval and pupal/puparial links for all species of fly, beetle, moth and sawfly to Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa were checked and updated as necessary.

27th September 2011 - Images of adult moths added

A total of 215 images of adult moths have been added from UKMoths. I am grateful to the following for permission to use them - Charles Baker (17), Andy Banthorpe (2), Helen Bantock (6), Robin Barfoot (1), Ian Barton (4), Andy Beaumont (2), Phil Boggis (1), Patrick Clement (5), Charles Fletcher (8), David Griffiths (2), Paul Harris (1), Bob Heckford (4), Ian Kimber (85), Paul Kitchener (3), John Knowler (1), Roy Laverton (1), Brian Leecy (1), Chris Lewis (1), Mark Lawlor (4), Andy Mackay (10), Guy Meredith (3), Mark Parsons (2), David Slade (3), Ben Smart (36), Ian Smith (15), Francis Solly (3), Chris Steeman (1), Barry Stewart (1), Charlie Streets (1), Tom Tams (1), Oliver Wadsworth (7), and Duncan Williams (7).To all I extend my grateful thanks.To all I extend my grateful thanks.

31st July 2011 - More images added

Additional images of mines and cases (where relevant) have been added to the species and host pages. These additional image are sourced from Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa and British leafminers. Where there are two or more images for a species, an interactive gallery has been created.

Galleries now exist for a total of 1, 006 species (36 species of beetles, 473 species of flies, 469 species of moths and 28 species of sawflies), although not all are miners.

25th July 2011 - Pseudidoneura mentiens added.

The sawfly Pseudidoneura mentiens on Hepatica (Ranunculaceae) was added, following British leafminers.

28th June 2011 - Parasitoids of Cameraria ohridella on Horse Chestnut

Additional parasitoids of Cameraria ohridella on Horse Chestnut have been added from Pocock, Evans, Straw and Polaszek, 2011.

4th March 2011 - Images of Lepidoptera mines added

Additional images of Lepidoptera mines and cases (where relevant) have been added to the species and host pages. These additional image are sourced from Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa, British leafminers. Where there are two or more images for a species, an interactive gallery has been created.

Galleries now exist for 393 species.

5th February 2011 - Images of Beetle and Sawfly mines added

Additional images of Beetle and Sawfly mines have been added to the species and host pages. These additional image are sourced from Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa, British leafminers. Where there are two or more images for a species, an interactive gallery has been created.

Galleries now exist for 158 species.

To view any of the thumbnails in the lower panel enlarged in the upper panel, left click on the thumbnail.

To view an image in the upper panel at the same size or larger on the source website, click on the hyperlink in the image caption, if one exists. The source will open in a new Window by default.

To view two (or more) images in the same key at the same time, right click on a thumbnail and select 'Open in a new window' to display the gallery. You will need to resize both the original and new windows and the use the scroll bars to centre the images.

e.g. Laburnum miner galleries in key to Diptera mines - Phytomyza cytisi and Agromyza demeijerei

e.g. Laburnum miner galleries in key to Diptera mines - Phytomyza cytisi and Agromyza demeijerei

 

5th February 2011 - Images of Diptera mines

Additional images of Diptera mines have been added to the species and host pages. These additional image are sourced from Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa, British leafminers and my own images. Where there are two or more images for a species, an interactive gallery has been created. Galleries now exist for 117 species of Diptera.

e.g. Acidia cognata (Wiedemann, 1817) [Diptera: Tephritidae].

To view any of the smaller images in the lower panel in the larger central panel just click on the image. To view an image in the larger central panel at the same size or larger on the source website, click on the hyperlink in the image caption.

27th January 2011 - Statistics

Since June 1st, 2007 the Home page of this website has received over 10, 559 visits, including 8, 059 unique visitors (of which 5, 711 were first time visitors and 2, 348 returning visitors).

In December 2010 this website joined the top ten referring sites to the National Biodiversity Network Gateway in 10th position (see January's NBN eNews).

This website currently includes over 2, 500 HTML pages, over 1, 500 images and 126, 445 links (including 41, 736 external links). All internal links have been checked to ensure that they exist and link to the right target. However, it may be that some of external links may no longer exist or link to the wrong target. If you do notice any examples, please notify me. There is also a link to my email address at the foot of every page.

25th January 2011 - British non-Diptera miners - Lists converted to Keys on Host pages

A total of 265 keys for the identification of the mines of British non-Diptera have been created from the alphabetical lists previously given on each Host genus page. These keys are mostly for host plant genera with four or fewer British non-Diptera miners recorded on them (the easier ones).

A further 136 keys for the identification of the mines of British non-Diptera have yet to be similarly created for those host plant genera with five or more British non-Diptera recorded on them (the more difficult ones).

There are currently 227 keys for the known British Diptera mines.

14th January 2011 - NBN Gateway Watsonian Vice County distribution updated for all Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera

Where they exist and are available to the public, the Watsonian Vice County records for all of the Lepidoptera and Hymneoptera species included here have been updated from the NBN Gateway utilising the default setting 'Fall within [the Vice County] or overlap by 10km resolution or better' to generate the list. This default setting has been chosen as many of the datasets included are only at 10km resolution. For the majority of species this has resulted in additional Vice County records. For some species, however, this has meant deletion of Vice County records cited here, possibly due to species misidentifications in the past or more restricted access to records by the public. Datasets used to create the lists are included in the NBN Grid Maps.

Since the NBN Gateway is updated as and when new records become available, the list of Vice Counties cited here may become out-dated. The embedded NBN grid maps and linked interactive maps, however, provide an up-to-date picture of distribution. To verify the Vice Counties cited here follow the NBN Gateway link for the target species and then select List of sites | Watsonian Vice County. Those wishing for higher resolution Vice County lists should change the default settings to suit their own requirements.

2nd January 2011 - NBN Gateway Watsonian Vice County distribution updated for all Diptera and Coleoptera

Where they exist and are available to the public, the Watsonian Vice County records for all of the Coleoptera and Diptera species included here have been updated from the NBN Gateway utilising the default setting 'Fall within [the Vice County] or overlap by 10km resolution or better' to generate the list. This default setting has been chosen as many of the datasets included are only at 10km resolution. For the majority of species this has resulted in additional Vice County records. For some species, however, this has meant deletion of Vice County records cited here, possibly due to species misidentifications in the past or more restricted access to records by the public. Datasets used to create the lists are included in the NBN Grid Maps.

Since the NBN Gateway is updated as and when new records become available, the list of Vice Counties cited here may become out-dated. The embedded NBN grid maps and linked interactive maps, however, provide an up-to-date picture of distribution. To verify the Vice Counties cited here follow the NBN Gateway link for the target species and then select List of sites | Watsonian Vice County. Those wishing for higher resolution Vice County lists should change the default settings to suit their own requirements.

 
2017 : 2016 : 2015 : 2014 : 2013: 2012 : 2011 : 2010 : 2009 : 2008 : 2007


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